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53 Cards in this Set

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cohesive
the units invovled stick together
adhesive
water will stick to other substances with other charges not just water molecules
Solvent
a liquid capable of disolving a substance
Solute
the substance being disolved
hydrophilic
water loving
hydrophobic
do not dissolve in water
hydrophobic interaction
causes non polar substances to seperate from water molecules
acid
substance that adds hydrogen ions to solutions
base
a substance that adds hydroxyl ions to a solution
dehydration synthesis
aka- condensation reaction. chemical reaction joining two molecules with the removal of one molecule of water
hydrolisis
breakdown of a molecule by adding a molecule of water to certain bonds
monosaccharides
contain 3 to 7 carbons. Simple sugars. Pintose and Hexose
oligosaccharides
minimum of three monosaccharides up to 16.
Polysaccharide
contains glycogen, starch, and cellulose
glycogen
major sugar storage form in animals. Used when you don't have amount of food needed
Plants store sugar as
starch
cellulose
found only in plants in the cell wall.
Lipids
heterogenous, insoluble in water
3 kinds of lipids
triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
triglycerides
composed of glycerol and three fatty acids
fatty acids
have an even number of carbons(16-18)
saturated fatty acids
single bonded carbons that have the maximum number of hydrogens attached
unsaturated fatty acids
has one or more carbon to carbon double bonds in its structure. Causes a bend or twist in the molecule
fats
triglycerides that are solid at room temperature and primarily found in animals
oils
triglycerides that are liquid at room temperature and have one or more unsaturated fatty acids
phospholipids
have polar head and fatty acid tails. Has one glycerol molecule and a phosphate group
steroids
four membered ring structures with no fatty acids
Proteins
based on monomer/ polymer relationship
amino acids have three different parts
amine group, carboxyl group, side chain
3 categories of amino acids
non polar
polar, uncharged
polar charged
Putting amino acids together forms a
peptide bond
two peptides linked together
forms a
dipeptide bond
protein synthesization
synthesised in only one direction from the amino terminal end to the carboxy terminal end
Primary structure
the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein
Secondary structure
the shape of the primary structure in space. Alpha Helix or Beta Pleated Sheet
tertiary structure
how the secondary structure is arranged in space. 3D shape of the polypeptide. Hydrogen bonds help to hold together
Fibrous Proteins
long thin proteins like hair and silk
hemoglobin
made up of four polypeptide chains
quarternary structures
has more than one polypeptide that make up the protein
Nucleotides
contains a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
Phosphodiester Bond
joins nucleotides together
polynucleotide chain
sugar phosphate back bone and all bases project off one side
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
a double polynucleotide chain with complementary chains that form a double helix
A, G, C, T
Base pairs
G,C
A,T (U)
Ribonucleic Acid
a single polynucleotide chain. Three kinds tRNA, mRNA, rRNA
mRNA
rRNA
tRNA
messanger RNA
ribosomal RNA
transfer RNA
Procaryote
organisms without a nucleus and lack organelles of any kind
Eukaryote
cells that posses a nucleus and organelles
humans have ___ chromosomes
46
Proposed the lipid bilayer as basic structure of the membrane
1925
Davson and Danielli Model
1935- lipid bilayer coated in proteins
Fluid Mosaic Model Of Membranes
1972- based on the lipid bilayer with two kinds of proteins (integral and peripheral). Proteins are a mosaic not a solid layer
Glycoprotein
any protein with a carbohydrate attached to them.