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### 46 Cards in this Set

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 Definition of Sound mechanical, longitudinal wave that travels in a straight line A sound wave is made up of what two things? compression and rarefaction Define Period and state unit length of time it takes to complete a single cycle seconds What parameters can be changed by the sonographer? Amplitude, power and intensity What parameters are determined by the sound source only? Period, Frequency, amplitude, power, and intensity. What parameter are determined by both sound source and medium? wavelength What parameter is determined by the medium only? propagation speed Define propagation speed and state unit speed at which sound moves through a medium m/second State the relationship between speed and density, and speed and stiffness. if density increases, speed decreases if stiffness increases, speed increases Put the following things in order of speed from slowest to fastest... liquid, solid, gas gas, liquid, solid Put in order the following things in order of slowest to fastest..brain, kidney, liver, air, soft tissue, and muscle. air, brain, soft tissue, liver, kidney, muscle What is the speed of sound through soft tissue? 1540m/s or 1.54 km/s or 1.54 mm/us define mathematically propagation speed. propagation speed= frequency (Hz)* wavelength (m) Define Frequency and state unit the # of certain events that occur in a specific duration of time 1/sec or Hertz Define the ranges for infrasound, audible sound and ultrasound. Infrasound= <20 Hz audible sound=20Hz-20kHz ultrasound= >20kHz what is the clinical imaging range for period? .1 to .5us What is the clinical imaging range for frequency? 2MHz to 10MHz What is the clinical imaging range for amplitude? 1MPa to 3MPa What is the clinical imaging range for Power? 4-90mW What is the clinical imaging range for intensity? .01-300 W/cm^2 What is the clinical imaging range for Wavelength? .1-.8mm What is the clinical imaging range for propagation speed? 500 m/s to 4000 m/s State the relationship between period and frequency, and wavelength and frequency? They are inverse of each other Can you change frequency without changing period? no, frequency is determined by period. Define amplitude and state its unit of measure the strength of a wave-the magnitude of the wave any units of acoustic variable, degrees, cm, grams/cubic cm, Pascals, decibels Define power and state the unit of measure relates to strength, it is the rate in which work is performed or energy is transferred from the entire sound beam units: watts state the relationship between power and amplitude directly related, power=amplitude squared state the relationship between intensity and amplitude directly related, intensity=amplitude squared Define intensity and state the unit of measure relates to the strength of a sound beam, it is the concentration of energy in a sound beam watts/cm ^2 Define intensity mathematically intensity= power of a beam/ its cross sectional area Define wavelength and state unit of measure distance of length that one cycle occupies mm, cm, or meter define wavelength mathematically wavelength= propagation speed(mm/us) / frequency (MHz) which image would have better quality and longitudinal resolution? A-high frequency, short wavelength B-Low frequency, long wavelength image A If frequency increases what does period do? decrease What does amplitude, power and intensity do as sound propagates through the body? they decrease If amplitude is increased 3x than what does power do? it is increased 9x if amplitude is increased 3x than what does intensity do? it is increased 9x if power is doubled than what does intensity do? it is doubled If wavelength increases what does frequency do? it decreases What is density? concentration of mass per unit of volume What is stiffness? materials ability to maintain it's shape If density increases what does speed do? it decreases If stiffness increases what does speed do? it increases convert 3 seconds to million seconds and then to micro seconds 3 seconds= .000003 Ms or 3*10^6 seconds 3 secs= 3000000 us or 3*10^-6 seconds name two complimentary unit relations giga and nano (billion & billionths, 10^9 & 10-9) mega and micro (million & millionths, 10^6 & 10^-6) State the following units power of 10 giga, mega, kilo, hecto, deca, deci, centi, milli, ,micro, nano 10^9 giga 10^6 mega 10^3 kilo 10^2 hecto 10^1 deca 10^-1 deci 10^-2 centi 10^-3 milli 10^-6 micro 10^-9 nano