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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are infections acquired in a healthcar facility?
Nosocomial infections
This term means absence of contamination by disease-causing microorgaisms
What is the process by which infections spread commonly referred to?
Chain of infections
When microorganisms are beneficial or even essential for human health and well being they are called?
Normal Flora
Organisms capable of causing disease
What is a successful invasion of the body by a pathogen?
What is a place where pathogens survive and multiply?
What are the six links in the chain of infection?
Infectious agent
Portal of exit
Mode of Transmission
Portal of entry
Susceptible host
What is a contaminated object that transfers a pathogen?
What is the most frequent portal of exit
body fluids
What is the most frequent portal of entry
normal body openings
What is the most frequent portal of entry in healthcare settings
Wounds, Surgical sites, and insertion sites for tubes and needles
A person with inadequate defenses aginst the invading pathogen is known as?
Susceptible host
What are the three factors that determine infection?
Virulence of the organism
number of organisms transmitted
the ability of the host's defenses to prevent infection
Infections that cause harme in a limited region of the body are called
local infections
When pathogens invade the blood or lymph and spread thoughout the body?
Systemic infections
Clinical presence of bacteria in the blood
symptomatic systemic infection spread via the blood
when the pathogens are acuired from the healthcare environment
exogenous nosocomial infections
when the pathogens arises from the patient's normal flora
endogenous nosocomial infections
Five stages of infections
incubation, prodromal stage, illness, decline and convalescence
what are the primary defenses of the body
skin, respiratory tree, eyes, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary
What are the secondary defenses of the body?
Phagocytosis, complement casade, inflammation and fever
What are tertiary defenses
specific immunity the process by which the body's immune cells "learn" to recognize and destroy pathogens that they have encountered before
What are the cells called that are involved in specific immunity
What are the molecules that trigger a specific immune response?
Which immune response acts directly against antigens
Infants are born with passive immunity because?
of their mother's IgG
What type of immunity acts to destroy body cells that have become infected?
Cell mediated immunity
How can an individual's defenses aginst invading pathogens be strengthened?
nutrition, hygiene, rest and exercise, stress reduction, and immunizations
What factors increase the risk for infection?
age, breaks in the skin, illness or injury, smoking, substance abuse,Multiple sexual partners, enivronmental factors, chronic disease, medications, and nursing and medical procedures
a state of cleanliness that decreases the potential for the spread of infectinos
Medical Asepsis
Five key factors in hand washing
time, water, soap, friction, and drying
Standard precautions are the same as?
Universal precautions
These are used when direct contact with the organism can lead to spread of the pathogens
Contact precautions
These are used when the pathogen can be spread via moist droplets
Droplet precautions
Ther are used to control the spread of infections that are transmitted on air currents.
Airbourne precautions
Airbourne precautions require that a patient be placed in a room with
negative air pressure
Patients at high risk for infection are placed in a spacial form of isolation called?
protective or reverse
Means without life
A surgical scrub requires you wash for how many minutes?
2-6 minutes
Healthcare workers use this to perform a variety of procedures that do not require full surgical attire
Sterile Technique