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79 Cards in this Set

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What are the 8 stages of the consumer processing model (cpm)?
1. EXPOSURE to info
2. selective ATTENTION
3. COMPREHENSION of attended information
4. AGREEMENT w/ comprehended info
5. RETENTION in memory of accepted info
6. RETRIEVAL of info from memory
7. DECISION MAKING from alternatives
8. ACTION taken on the basis of the decision
STAGE 1: EXPOSURE
Consumers come in contact w/ the marketer's message ( they see a mag ad, hear a radio commerical,
STAGE 2: SELECTIVE ATTENETION
to focus cognitive resources on and think about a message to which 1 has been exposed. has to be highly selective.
attention: 1.invol., 2. non vol., 3. vol
1. little to no effort, automatic
2. attracted, cathc the eye
3. seeking something, willful
how to get attention?
1. motion-cars
2. intensity
3. novelty- unique
STAGE 3. COMPREHEnSION

PRECEPTUAL ENCODING:
1. FEATURE ANALYSIS
2. ACTIVE SYNTHESIS
perception, to understand & create meaning outr of stimuli and symbols
1. initial stage whereby a receiver examines the basic features of a stimulus. ie: we can notice a difference in a motorcycle & a bicycle from the shape ect. also the main point- the movie you watch
2.goes beyond merely examining physical features. The CONTEXT or situation were info is recieved plays a major role in determining what is percieved & interpreted, or what meaning is acquired. ie: detail put together. when a fur coat is put into 2 different stores( the contexts) it is percieved differently.
STAGE 4: AGREEMENT W/ WHAT IS COMPREHENDED
the cons. AGREES w/, accepts, a message that they have comprehended. the message is CREDIBLE (believable, trustworthy) & aPPEALS that are compatible w/ the values that are important to the consumer. IE: cant sell something that they dont need.- dentures
STAGE 5 & 6: RETENTION & SEARCH/RETRIEVAL OF STORED INFO
processing stages, both involve memory
stage 5,6
DUAL-CODING THEORY
pics are represented in memory in verbal as well as visual form, whereas words are less likely to have visual representations. ie: pics & visuals (vs words) are better remembered b/c pics are especially able to elicit mental images.
STAGE 7: DECIDING AMONG ALTERNATIVES
1. AFFECT REFERRAL
2. COMPENSATORY HEURISTIC
3. Conjunctive
How 1 decides to choose a brand
1. picks from the alternative for which the affect is most postive. risk are minamal, most purchases. ie: blk goes w/ everything
2. the benefit that the consumer is seeking. compleltly superior or dominant over other consumptions alternatives. ie: choosing the green leather purse over the blk 1 b/c it is Pleather.
3. ie: need a suit but find something different. have motivation then find something else.
STAGE 8: ACTING ON THE BASIS OF THE DECISION
PEEPS DONT ALWAYS behave in a manner cosistent w. their preferences. the prescence of events, situational factors, that distrupt, inhabit, or otherwise prevent a person from following through on their intentions. low-involve. cons. beh. stock-outs, price-offs..that lead to the purchase of brands that arent what you really want.
HEDONIC, EXPERIENTIAL MODEL (HEM)
nonverbal, this explains how cons process info & make decisions when they are carefree & happy & confronted w/ positive outcomes. for the shher fun of it, amusement, fantasies, or sensory stimulation. ie: a new car, motorcycle, skies, chocolate...the russell stovers ad w/ the legs
demographic
age, income, and ethnicity
psychographic
consumers lifestyles like activites, interests, & opinions
The baby boomer generation
1946-1964, end of the ww2, they created the mini baby boom, they represent " epicenter of society"
teenagers/ Gen Y
-13-19,
-earning powers & considerable influence in making personal & household purchases.
-1979- 1994,
-highly conformist, narcissistic, & fickle consumers.
-they dont like to be 'marketed to'
Young Adults/ Gen X
-1965-1981
-19 to 35
-baby busters
slackers, cynics, whiners, grunge kids, hopeless
IMC
the communication process that entails the planning, creation, intergration, & implementation of diverse forms of marketing commun. ( adv., sales promo, publicity releases, events) that are delivered over time to a brand's targeted customers & prospects. the GOAL: is to unfluence the behavior of the targeted audience.
5 sateges of IMC
1. Start w/ the consumer or prospect
2. Use any form of relevant contact
3. achieve synergy ( speak w/ a single voice)
4. build relationship
5. affect behavior
contact
any message medium capable of reaching target cust. & presenting the brand in a favorable light
the 8 elements in the communication process
1. a source
2. communication objective
3. message
4. message channel
5. reciever
6. communication outcome
7. feedback
8. noise
1.source
a communicator- an advertiser, salesperson, sales promoter- who has thoughts( ideas, sales points) to share w/ an individual customer or prospect or an entire target audience.
encoding
the process of translating thought into symbolic form
2. communication objective
creating brand awareness, implanting postive assoc. in the consum. nenory as a basis for a postive brand image, & affectsing beh. have a crystal clear idae of what is going on
3. message
is a symbolic expression of what the commun. intends to accomplish.
4. message channel
the path through which the message moves from source to reciever. ie; tv, radio, news, mags...
5. reciever
the person or group of peeps( target audience) w/ whom the source attempts to share ideas.
6. Commun. outcome
the target audience experineces, realizes or manifests an outocme in response to the message recieved from the brand commun. results in brand awareness, more post. 'tudes, greter purchasing of the brand.ie: putting an ad in a show like friends or having you vote 4 amer. idol
7. feedback
the source a way of monitoring how accurately the intended message is being recieved & whether it is accomplishing its intended obj.
8. noise
distraction, interference, distortion, can happen at any stage. ie: the phone ringing, a baby crying, too much going on in a mag ad.
attitude
a general & somewhat enduring positive or neg. feeling towards some person, obj, issue.
1, are learned
2. relatively enduring
3. influence beh
Affective component
feelings & evaluations
ie: i hate/ love....
cognitive component
a persons beliefs, knowledge, thoughts
ie: I BELIEVE, KNOW
conative component
consum. intention to buy a specific item
ie: Im going to buy this bag
message arguments
CONTROLLED. the strength or quality of message argumrnts is often the major determinant of whether & to what extent peruasion occurs. reasons behind the product to buy.
peripheral Cues
CONTROL- NOT EMOTION! they are peripheral to the primary message arguments. background music, scnery, & graphics.
-may play amore imp role than mess. argu. in determining the outcome of a persuasive effort.
receiver involvement
UNCONTROLLABLE- the personal relevance that a commun. has for a receiver is a critical determinant of the extent & form or persuasion. Highly invloved consum. are motivated to process mess.argu. when exposed to mkting commun.
receiverd intial position
1. Supportive arguments
2. counterarguments
UNCONTROLLABLE- self generated thoughtd that peeps produce in response to persuasive efforts. both cognitive & emotional responses.
1. agrees w/ a message argument
2. the reciever challenges a message claim.
6 tools of persuasion
1. reciprocation
2.commiment & consistency
3. social proof
4. liking
5. authority
6. scarcity
1. RECIPROCATION
HONEST- return a fovor w/ a favor. giving gifts or samples.
2. COMMITMENT & CONSISTENCY
after peeps make a choice( a commitment) there often is a strong tendency to remain faithful to that choice.
-lowballing- car dealers do this
-highly ego involved
3. SOCIAL PROOF
appropriate behav. is somewhat unclear. take leads from others, their behav. provides social proof of how we should behave.
4. LIKING
most likely to adopt an 'tude or undertake an action when a likebale person promated that action. we like peeps who are attractive & similarities.we relate & like
ie: milk mustaches
5. AUTHORITY
respect authority figures.
ie: parents, teachers, coaches, docs. endorsements.athletes, enterainers
6. SCARCITY
more desirable when they are in great demand but shory supply, rare
ie: the apts. are going fast!
THEORY OF REASONED ACTION
( read pg 123)
(message-based persuasion)
- Peeps can really think about the ad.
-all forms of planned reasoned behav. have 2 prime. determinants: 'tudes & normative influences
-when consum. are sufficiently motivated & able to process a message's SPECIFIC argu. or selling points, their COGNITIVE responses may lead to changes in BELIEFS about the adv. brand or changes in EVALUATIONS of the imp. of brand attributes & benefits.
- the result is a change in 'tude toward the brand.
ELABORATION
(ELM)
mental activity in response to a message such as an adv.
ie: think about what the mess. is saying..
-cognitive resources
ie: think about the peeps in the comerical, & their similaritys to 1s own fam & friends & how it may fit into 1s life style
MOTIVATION
(ELM)
(Moa)
high when a mess. relates to a persons present consumption-related goals & is thus relevent to that indvidual.
ie: if relates to, cars, i need a new one, i will listen to the mess.
OPPORTUNITY
(ELM)
(mOa_
physically possible for a person to process a mess.; oppo. is restricted when, among other reasons, a mess. is presented too quickly the sound is too low, or an ind. is distracted.
ABILITY
(ELM)
(moA)
a person is familiar w/ mess claims & is capable of comperhending them. they are motivated but cant comprehend.
ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD (EL)
(MOA)
chance or prospect that a mess. receiver will elaborate on a a mess. by thinking about & reacting to it & comparing it w/ their preexisiting thoughts & beliefs regarding the product category, the adv. brand, & perhaps competitive brands.
THE CENTRAL ROUTE
(elm)
-when the EL is HIGH, the reciever will focus predominantly on mess. arguments reather than peripheral cues.
-when activaited, the reciever will lisren to, wathc, or read about a brands attributes & benefits but will not necessarily accept them at face value.
ie: 'thats a lie'
EMOTION-BASSED PERSUASION
(ELM->CENTRAL ROUTE)
WHEN HIGHLY INVOLVED, there is a tendency to relate aspects of the message to their personal situations.
-put in the situation
ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES
1. to change beliefs
2. to alter outcome evaluations
3. to introduce a new outcome into the evaluation process
BRAND EQUITY
the goodwill(equity) that an est. brand has built up over the period of its existence
BRAND
'name, sign, term, symbol, or design to identify sell. '
sincerity
down to earth, honest, wholesome, & cheerful.
ie: Betty crocker
excitemnet
daring, spirited, imaginative, & up-to-date.
ie:sony camera
competence
scoring high on the personality dimension are reliable, intelligent, successful.
ie: maytag
sophistication
upper class & charming,
ie: rolex
ruggedness
though& outdoorsy
ie: timberland
BRAND AWARENESS
whether a brand name comes to mind when consum. think about a part. product cate. & the EASE w/ which the name is evoked
ie: crest & colgate
- B.A. is the basic dimension of B. Equity
BRAND IMAGE
assoc. that come to mind when contemplating a part. brand.
-thought & feelings that 1 has about the brand.
AWARENESS CLASS
(ADPOTION)
free samples, coupons, advertising, & distribution.
intro for new products need successful advertising campaign, widespread producy dist., inexpensive package goods, extensive couponing & sampling
TRIER CLASS
(ADOPTION)
WE THEY BECOME AWARE of new... they will try the new offer.
- cents- off coupons, wide spread dist., & lower prices, & test driving.
REAPTER CLASS
(ADPOTION)
repeating purchases-adv., price, dist., & product SATISFACTION.
- accessible i retail outlets & if product quality is deemed satisfactory.
THE DIFFUSION PROCESS
how an innovation is commun. & adopted throughout the mktplace.
-diffusion is the process of spreading out.
innovators
-less than 3%
- 1st peeps to accept a new idea or product
-VENTURESOME & are more willing to take risk
-seek social relationships outside their peer group-cosmopolites
-younger, higher in social class better edu.
-IMPERSONAL info sources
P-O-P
displays, posters, signs, & other for @ the point of purch. when all the elements come together.
Functional needs
the brand has specific benefits capable of solving those problems.
- safety, good health, cleanliness
ie: a razor, clothes, food
SYMBOLIC NEEDS
consums. desire for self-enhancement, group membership, affiliation, & belonginness.
-personal beauty prod., jewelry, beer, cigs, motor vech.
EXPERIENTIAL NEEDS
PROVIDE SENSORY PLEASURE, VARITY
-OUT OF THE ORDINALRY OR HIGH IN SENSORY ( LOOKING ELEGENT, FEELING WONDERFUL, TASTING OR SMELLING GREAT, SOUNDING DIVINE, EXCITING, CHALLENGING
- THE HONDA
MEANING
the perceptions (thoughts) & affective reactions( feelings) to stimuli evoked w/in a person when presented w/ a sign, such as a brand name, in a part. context.
ie: 2 different peeps might see 2 differ things out of the adv.
consumer-processing
(CPM)
behav. is seen as ratoinal, cognitive, systematic, & reasoned
Hedonic, experiential
(HEM)
behav. as driven by emotions in pursuit of "fun, fantasies, & feelings."
HEDONIC NEEDS
(motivation)
are satisfied when consums. attend to mess. that make them feel good & serve their plaesure needs.
-good times, enjoyment, & things we value in life.
ie: using babies, warm families, & sex/romance appeals, food
novel stimuli
(motivaton)
INVOL- unusual,distinctive, & unpredictable.
ie: see a billboard everyday, you stop noticing it, but if took down you would notice that.
intense stimuli
(motivation)
-INVOL
-louder, colorful, bigger, brighter... inc the probab. of attracting attention. hard to avoid
motion
(motivation)
to attract & direct the consums. attent. to the brand name.
ie: falling objs., peeps running & cars in motion