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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Socrates and Plato
mind seprable from body
knowledge built w/in
knowledge from experiences
monism . . . soul not sep from body
"nurture" not "nature"
memories recalled thru association
seeks coorelation between body condition and mind
believes socrates and plato
"animal spirits" make mind/brain work
examines brain and NERVES
Sir Francis Bacon
founder of mod sci
Experiment, Experience, Common Sense
saw mind's attempt to find patterns/order
mind's selectivity of memories to confirm beliefs
John Locke
@ birth mind is a black slate of "white paper"
NURTURE, not nature
a)knowledge from experiences via senses
b) sci flourishes thru observation and experimentation
*rationale for democracy
*bacon and locke
William Wundt
*first psych experiment
*philosopher and physiologist
*first lab/grad students
schools of psych
*gestalt psych
an early school of psych using introspection to explore structure of human mind
focuses on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable an organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
Edward Titchner
*Wundt's student
*intro's structuralism w/ self reflection
William James
*wrote Principles of Psychology
*believed thinking serves a purpose--to help us survive
*free will has practical value
test truth by practical consequences
mary calkins
*APA's 1st female prez
*James' student
Margaret Floy Washburn
*wrote "The Animal Mind"
*1st female Harvard PhD in psych
studied learning
Sigmund Freud
physician studied personality . . . WRONG ALOT
Jean Piaget
swiss biologist boserved kids
"the science of behavior and mental processes"

*attempt to describe/explain human nature
*test theories, evaluate
stability vs. change
do we change as we grow?
rationality vs. irrationality
rational brains function like perceptionis are working, irrationality is misremembering etc
nature vs. nurture
longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors

*plato(nature) vs. aristotle (nurture)
*Descartes (some ideas innate) vs. Locke ("blank sheet")
Charles Darwin
argued that natural selection shapes behaviors and bodies
natural selection
the principle that among the range of inherited traits variations those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to further generations
neuroscience perspective
how the body/brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
evolutionary perspective
how natural seection of traits promotes perpetuation of genes
behavior genetics perception
how much our gens and environment influence our individual differences
psychodynamic perspective
how behavior springs from unconcious drives and conflicts
behavioral perspective
how we learn observable responses
cognitive perspective
how we encode, process, store, and retrieve info
social-cultural perspective
how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
applied research
scientific study to solve practical problems
biological psychologists
links between body and mind
developmental psychologists
changing abilities womb to tomb
cognative psychologists
how we perceive, think, problem-solve
personality psychologists
investigate persistant traits
social psychologists
how we view and affect one another
industrial/organizational psychologists
sutdy and advise workplace behavior
clinical psychologists
study, assess, treat troubled people
medical doctors that provide psychotheraby and medication to people with psychological disorders
what you can observe/measure
father of medicine
*father of medicine
*brain is root of behavior prob
thoughts +feelings = behavior
Objective sensation
reflects the outside world (example: taste or sight
subjective feeling
emotional response or mental images associated w/ an object
Gestalt approach
perception is more than sm of parts and studied how sensations are assembled into meaningful perceptual experiences
Max Wertheimer
whole greater than parts
sudy larg units instead of structuralism
deals w/ perceptions
objective, scientific analysis of observable behavior
interested in behavior and precise measurement instead of conciousness of Wundt and james
John Watson
"radical behaviorism"
objective and experimental
against Freud
environmental factors mold you (reward an punishment) NURTURE
change behavior thru conditioning
Leta Stetter Hollingworth
child dev and women's issues
Karen Horney
social and cultural aspects to personality
june etta downey
personality trait theorist
anna freud
continued father's work
contemplation of one's own thoughts and sensations; self-examination
understanding, especially an understanding of the movives and reasons behind behavior
freud's theory of personality focusing on repression and unconcious forces
the ineraction of various concious and unconcious mental or emotional processes
a system of thought that centers on humans and their values, capacities, and worth
assumes that people are entirely free and thsu responsible for what they make of themselves
social cognative theory
behavior influenced by the interaction between persons and their thinkng and thei social context
mind-body dualism
the mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
doctrine that mindand matter are the same ultimate substance or principle of being
law of effect
behaviors are selevted by their consequences . . .smallest is chosen
a specialist in psychology as related to biology or part of the vital process