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25 Cards in this Set

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Basic Shapes
rods-E.coli
Spheres-streptococcus mutans
vibrios-vibrio cholerae
spirls-treponema pallidum
diplococci-strepptococcus species
square-wasbys bacterium
size range
0.5 micro meters-2 micro meters
Special cases 80 to 600 micrometers--> Epulospiscium fihelonii
typical prok cell (12)
sex pilli, nucleoid, plasmids, cell wall, outer membrane(G-), inner membrane, periplasmic space(G-), inclusion bodies, fimbria, ribosomes, flagellum, capsule.
Gram +
Cell wall 80 nm thick, membrane-->lipid bilayer, cell walls have teichoic acids(ribitol and glycerol polymers), have proteins.
Peptidoglycan layer.
Gram -
outer membrane->periplamic space->inner membrane, cell wall doesnt has teichoic acids and proteins.
Cytoplasmic membrane
phosopholipids(fatty acid/phosphate/glycerol) form lipid bilayer.
Hopanoids: Amphipathic.
Hopanoids
pentacyclic-sterol like molecules-impact rigidity to the membrance.(see cholesterol in euks
Functions of cytoplasmis membrane.
1)maintain osmotic pressure with in cell
2)transport nutrients in waste/toxins out, protein secretion
3)respiratory functions(mitochondria in euks)
membrane extentions
internal membrane system. house repiratoty nitrogen fixation. serve to house a varity of "special perposes"
1)photosynthetic apparatus
2)Nitrogen fixing apparatus.
3)Extra respiratory apparati
cytoplasmic matrix
Bacteria do possess components of a cytoplasm.
-microtublelike elements
-acitinlike elements
-microfilamient like elements
play role in cell division and chromosome segregation. intracellular inclusion bodies organized by cytoskeletal matrix.
Inclusion bodies
Granules of organic or inorganic material lying in the cytoplasmic matrix of bacteria.
carboxysomes
house enzymes for photosynthesis
cyanophcin granules
nitrogen storage
gas vacuoles
in aquatic for bouyancy
magntosomes
orient cells in a geographic north/south
Glycogen
carbon storage molecules
poly beta hyroxy butyrate
store carbon when nitrogen stress(under conditions when some other nutrient is limiting for growth-->store carbon bc they dont want to waste it.
ribosomes
about 20000/cell
70s type: 50s and 30s. suedberg. function is protein synthesis. associated with membrane help with protein secretion.
Nuceoid
not membrane bounded in bacteria. can be bound to the membrane. tightly packed
Cell Wall
(peptidoglycan/murein layer)
peptide bonds btw amino acids with in the wall
amino acids D(sugars) and L(amino acids)
glycan-sugars(amino acids interact with sugars)-glycosidic bonds "Chain mail"
Amino sugars and type of bond
N-acetyl muramic acid(NAM), and N-acetyl Glucosamine(NAG)
glycosidic
Amino Acids and type of bonds
D and L acanine
D-Glutamin Acid
L-Lysin
peptide bonds
Peptide organization
parallel chains of sugar(alternating NAM-NAG) Amino acids are crosslinked btw adjacent NAM residues in each chain.
Peptide glycogen bridge
observed in certain g+ bacteria.
Functions of peptidoglycan
1)Provides structural integrity to cell
2)prevents cell from bursting(due to osmotic pressure)
3)Gives cell its shape