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72 Cards in this Set

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what are the 3 mechanisms that bacteria and archaea use to make ATP?
1-substrate level phosphorylation-transfer hi energy P from phosphorylated organic to adp=atp
2-respiration- oxidizing reduced e- donors coupled with reduction of e- acceptors REDOX
3-photophosphorylation-use light energy to make chg seperation to make ATP - REDOX
Redox reactions
oxidation is the _ of electrons, oxidation _ energy
loss of electrons
releases
reduction is the _ of electrons
gain
redox can involve the transfer of _ , usually coupled with _ which can be realeased to cause a _ _
H+ protons
electrons
proton gradient
how is the amount of free energy determined?
difference in reduction potential of e donors and acceptors
substrate level phosphorylation
can occur aerobically- glycolysis or anerobically- fermentation
STP
what are the two types of fermentations?
1-mixed acid - makes ethanol, acetate, co2, h2, lactate
2- 2,3 butanediol - makes ethanol, 23 butanediol, co2 and h2
respiration
makes atp using the _
e- transport chain
what is the process of e transport chain?
reducing equivalents (e-) are passed thru intermediates to final electron acceptor
aerobic uses o2, anerobic uses other things
where is the e- transport chain found?
in the cytoplasmic membrane of respiring or PS prokaryotes
what ties the e transport chain to atp synthesis?
chemioosmosis - proton gradient drives synthesis of atp
photosynthesis
describe the process
photon of light absorbed by light harvesting mc, which makes it excited and it donates e- to be an e- acceptor - causes proton gradient and makes atp
what are the 5 types of photosynthetic bacteria?
nonsulfur purple bacteria
purple sulfur bacteria
green sulfur bacteria
cyanobacteria
heliobacteria
where are nonsulfur purple bacteria found and what are e- and C sources found?
surface of mud/lakes
e-=H2 or org
C= co2
where are purple sulfur bacteria found and what are e- and C sources found?
sulfur springs hypolimnon
anerobic with lots sulfur/light
e-=h2s
c=co2
where are green sulfur bacteria found and what are e- and C sources found?
lower depths
anerobic with lots sulfur
e-= h2s
C=co2
where are cyanobacteria found and what are e- and C sources found?
surface water
aerobic
e-= h20
c= co2
where are heliobacteria found and what are e- and C sources found?
alkaline env
e-= lactate or org mc
C= lactate, pyruvate, acetate
PS archaea
extremely halophilic archaea- salt, 02 limited , has caroteniod and bacteriorhodopsin to eject proton makes PMF to make atp
what are the possible growth conditions of prokaryotes?
ph 1-11
temp 0-100
fresh or salt water
aerobic or anerobic
what are some unique abilities of prokaryotes?
fix n2
make b12
use inorg sources as e donors in respiration and PS
use inorg sources as term e acceptors
PS without chlorophyll
grow anerobically
grow in temp above 80
what are growth factors and give examples?
low molecular weight compounds needed in growth medium
vitamins
amino acids
purines and pyrimidines
2 types of culture mediums
which is for faster growing
solid and liquid
liquid
2 nutritional types of mediums
rich complex - has 1 or more chemically undefined components like peptone
defined synthetic - all chemically defined and known amounts
what are the 3 isolation techniques?
1-streak plate- streak in diff quads, each colony comes from a single parents, streak again to get 1 pure or bacterial strain
2-spread plate-dilute cells spread with hockey stick then streak plate to show pure
3-pour plate - mix sample with molten agar, heat may kill
what is the isolation of prokaryotes using a nutritional and physical conditions?
enrichment culture
draw winogradskys column
more 02 at top more h2s at bottom
aerobic cyanobacteria nonsulfur purple
purple sulfur
green sulfur
anerobic
what is the time it takes for cells to divide called?
what is the equation
generation time
Nt=No*2^N
n=log Nt-log No/log 2
gen time=time in min/n
draw out the growth curve of bacteria
lag, exponential , stationary, death
prokaryotes that grow at low phs are called
at high ph are called
acidophiles
alkalinophiles
define
aerobes
microaerophiles
anerobic
like oxygen use aerobic respiration
aerobic resp at limited oxygen
lil or no oxygen
why are some prokaryotes senesitve to oxygen?
how do aerobes tolerate oxygen?
because o2 can react and form toxic byproducts
aerobes have enzymes that break down the toxic byproducts
what are the different temperature categories of prokaryotes?
1-psychrophiles- 0-15 ice
2-mesophiles - 20-45 animals, soil,h20
3-thermophiles - 45-70 vol areas and hot springs
4-hyperthermophiles - >70 ocean
what involves puttin dna on an extrachromosomal element like a plasmid?
what does it use to cut the dna?
cloning
restriction enezymes
2 ways the cell protects itself against foreign incoming dna?
1-restriction enzymes - create double stranded breaks in the dna
2-modification enzymes- modify incoming dna so that it doesnt get cut
what does sticky ends, blunt ends, protruding and recessed ends look like?
draw
what is pcr used for?
what is the process?
to amplify the gene before cloning
denature, anneal and extend
what is microbial genomics?
determine the whole genome of microbes and id the genes in the sequences
what is large scale genomic sequencing?
dna sequencing sanger
what is annotation?
using computer to compare new sequence to those in database and determine relatedness and function
can an organism grow in the presence of oxygen even if it does not use 02 as a final e acceptor?
yes
enrichment cultures often yield only a single prokaryotic species
F
doesn't isolate a strain it isolates a type - end up with cyano but with many strains of it
all photosynthetic bacteria use some type of chlorphyll molecule to trap light
T
do both prokaryotes and eukaryotes grow in a winodgradsky column?
yes
do viable counts always underestimate the number of prokaryotes present in a soil samples?
yes
can a prokaryotic strain that requires growth factors be grown in a defined medium?
yes
the strickland reaction is an example of ?
substrate level phosphorylation
which of the following always occurs in a biological redox reaction?
a h atom is always transferred
a proton is released to the cytoplasm
at least 1 e- is transferred
at least 1 e- is transferred
which uses only aerobic respiration to generate energy?
strict anerobe
facultative aerobe
microaerophile
strict aerobe
microaerophile and strict aerobe
which of the following is not true regarding carotenoid based system for PS?
involves a single redox reaction
absorbtion of light by bacteriodophsin
protons ejected
pmf is created
involves a single redox reaction
an excited molecule can not:
dissapate energy in form of heat
dissappate energy in the form of radiation
change reduction potential mc so that it bc an e donor
trasfer energy to neighbor
dissapate in form of flourescnce
dissapate in the form of radiation
what is not an anoxygenic ps prokaryotic system?
nonsulfur purple bacteria
green sulfur
purple sulfur
cyanobacteria
cyanobacteria
what is the process of cloning and sequncing random fragments of prokaryotic species then assembling sequences into full genome seq?
whole genome shotgun sequencing
what did beijernick find?
that if u use same enrichment media on samples from diverse habitats u get similar bacteria
what membrane is never an energy transducing membrane?
gram - outer membrane
the PMF is also known as the
electrochemical potential
read gel from ?
bottom to top
which can result in isolated colonies?
streak
spread
pour
all
which can colonies grow in the
agar?
streak
spread
pour
pour
which uses a glass hockey stick?
streak
spread
pour
spread
some species may be killed
streak
spread
pour
pour
cells are distributed into quadrants
streak
spread
pour
streak
in which is ethanol produced?
mixed acid fermentation
butanediol
both
neither
both
which is gas produced in?
mixed acid fermentation
butanediol
both
neither
both
which can involve glycolysis?
mixed acid fermentation
butanediol
both
neither
both
which produces lactate?
mixed acid fermentation
butanediol
both
neither
mixed acid
butanediol is produced
mixed acid fermentation
butanediol
both
neither
butanediol
which uses both ddntps and dntps?
manual sanger
automated sanger
both
neither
both
which uses a radioactive primer?
manual sanger
automated sanger
both
neither
manual
in which does dna synthesis occur?
manual sanger
automated sanger
both
neither
both
which uses a flourescent primer?
manual sanger
automated sanger
both
neither
neither
products for a given dna template are analyzed on a single lane of gel?
manual sanger
automated sanger
both
neither
automated