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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what must living organisms be? and give examples
must be cellular
bacteria , protozoa, fungi, algae NOT viruses
does prokaryotes have NUCLEUS, CHROMOSOMES,MITOSIS,MEIOSIS, MITO,CHOLORO,RIBO, RNA?
no
1 - circular or linear
yes
no
no
no
70s
no
does eukaryotes have NUCLEUS, CHROMOSOMES,MITOSIS,MEIOSIS, MITO,CHOLORO,RIBO, RNA?
yes
2- linear
yes
yes
yes
yes
80s
yes
which organisms have peptidoglycan?
bacteria
what is a photoautotroph,photoheterotroph, chemoautotroph,chemoheterotroph?
1-obtain energy from light and carbon from co2
2- obtain energy from light and carbone from organic mc
3- obtain energy from inorganic mc, and carbon from co2
4-obtain energy from inorg mc, carbone from org/inog mc
endosymbiosos states that eukaryotes come from merging of _ and _
draw the merge
bacteria and archeae
what is the evidence for endosymbiosos?
chloroplasts and mitochondria both have dna but no nuclear membrane
both sized like bacteria
both have 70s ribosomes
16s of mitochondria is like 16s of protobacterias; 16s of chloroplast is like 16s of cyanobacteria
what are the characteristics of plasmids?
which genetic exchange transfer plasmids?
1-replicate on their own
2-extrachromosomal
3-most circular
4-may have resistance genes

conjugation and transformation
what type of cell membrane does bacteria have? draw and describe
phospholipid bylayer
what type or cell membranes do archaea have? draw and describe
1-bilayer made of glycerol ether linked to isoprenoid
2-monolayer made of glycerol linked to isoprenoid linked to glycerol
what is in a gram - outer membrane?
phospholipid layer, lipoprotein anchor, other proteins, LPS, periplasmic space - bt cell wall and membrane site of cell wall synthesis
what are the types or archaea cell walls?
proteinaceous
glycopeptide
pseudopeptidoglycan - NAM acid replaces NAM has NAG
what type of solutions are bacteria and archae usually in? decribe
hypotonic , where solutes greated on inside of cell so water goes into cell - cell wall stops from bursting
what is a genome?
complete set of genes
name purines and pyrimidines..
which bind together?
A,G=purines
C,T=pyrimidines
a-t bind
g-c bind
what does a gene code for?
a specific poplypeptide
draw the DNA tree
dna-transcription-translation
what feature does every gene have?(what's needed for transcription)
site for transcription start and stop
draw bacterial and arachaeal promoter. what binds at these promoters?
rna polymerase
what does every gene have that codes for protein and polypeptides?
promoter
terminator
open reading frame
what is an operon?
is a single gene ever considered to be an operon?
dna that holds genes that are transcribed onto same MRNA
NO
what makes new combos of genes and is important for evolution?
genetic exchange
genetic exchange OFTEN involves what?
homologous recombination
what are types of genetic exchange?
transduction
conjugation
transformation
which one does not transfer plasmids?
transduction
what is transduction?
bacteriophage carries bact DNA from 1 cell to another
what is transformation?
free dna is taken up and transformed into host genome - can be chrom or plasmid
what is conjugation?
transfer dna from 1 to another - plasmids
name the macromolecules and monomers that make them
proteins aa
nucleic acids nucleotides
polysaccharides monsaccharide
lipds FA
A cell can only grow if it makes _ ?
monomers
monomers are made from _ precursor metablolites?
glucose metabolism makes _ precursor metabolites?
12
name the 12 precursor metabolites
g6p
f6p
r5p
e4p
glycerald 3p
3pg
pep
pyruvate
acetyl coa
oaa
a KG
succinyl coa
draw glycolysis EM and name the outputs inputs
1 glucose in - uses 2 atp, 2 nadh makes 4 atp, 2 pyruvate
draw tca and label outputs inputs
1 pyruvate = uses 2 co2 , 3 nadh, 1 fadh2 makes 1 atp
draw the hexose monophosphate shunt
uses 2 nadph
what are the outputs of ED
2 pyruvate made 1 atp made
what does the calvin cycle fix and what are the 2 steps?
CO2
carboxylation to add co2 to r15bp
rearrangement to regenerate r15bp - the co2 acceptor mc
what molecules does nitrogen assimilation use?
which is the most common?
how is no3-2 and n2 incorporated?
NH4,NO3-2 NITRATE, N2
incorporating Nh4 directly into org intermediates
no3-2-reduced to nh4 then incorp into org inter
n2-nitrogen fixation to NH3 then into org inter
what molecules does sulfur assimilation use?
which is the most common?
which is least?
so4-2 sulfate and h2s from cysteine and methionine
so4-2 into s2-to org intermh2s-dirct source of h2-or intermed
antibiotics work best on?
gram + bacteria actively growing
what is a living example in support of endosymbiotic theroy?
protozoa
what was the order or organisms in evolution?
bacteria and archaea occurred at the same time, eukaryotes occurred last
what is the correct order beginning from the outside of cell of molecules?
o poly, core poly, lipid A, peptidoglycan
homologous exchange plays an important role in ?
transduction, conjugatoin and transformation
what is an ester linkage and where is it found?
o-c=o bacteria cell membrane
what is an ether linkage and where is it found?
c-o-c archaeal cell membrane
which cycle makes the most co2?
TCA
a gene with an open reading frame codes for ?
protein and polyepeptide
what is the order of a bacterial gene that encodes a polypeptide?
-35, pribeaux box, transcription start, shine, start codon
what is the simplest form of transposon?
IS element
during transcription which of the following is transcribed into MRNA?
pribnow box
TATA
shine delgarno
shine delgarno
during generalized transduction - what does not occur?
receipent cell does not lyse due to production of progeny phase
how are organims grouped into the tree of life?
by relatedness of 16s rna or 18s rna
which extracellular layers are made of polysacharide?
slime layer
capsule
sheath
s layer
slime layer and slayer (protein jacket)
which may be a virulance factor?
slime layer
capsule
sheath
s layer
capsule and s layer
which are produced by bacteria that glide?
slime layer
capsule
sheath
s layer
slime layer
which surround aquatic prok?
slime layer
capsule
sheath
s layer
sheath
which are the only layer external to come archae?
slime layer
capsule
sheath
s layer
s layer
bacteria morphology
which has a helix structure?
vibrio
spirocheate
cocci
mycelium
bacillus
spirocheate
which is the most commom morphology for unicellular prok?
vibrio
spirocheate
cocci
mycelium
bacillus
bacillus
which is a multicellular form?
vibrio
spirocheate
cocci
mycelium
bacillus
mycelium
which is flexible?
vibrio
spirocheate
cocci
mycelium
bacillus
spirocheate
which has a bent rod shape?
vibrio
spirocheate
cocci
mycelium
bacillus
vibrio
cell appendages
which are involved in conjugation?
pili
spinae
flagella
pili
which are made entirely of protein?
pili
spinae
flagella
all
which are sometimes called fimbrie?
pili
spinae
flagella
pili
which are made entirely of polysaccahride?
pili
spinae
flagella
none
which are used for motility?
pili
spinae
flagella
flagella