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45 Cards in this Set

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What is unique about the human cerebral cortex compared to other terrestrial animals?
Ours is the biggest relative to our total body size.
Where is the most dramatic difference in the human cerebral cortex?
In the area anterior to M1
What 2 abilities set humans apart from other animals?
-The ability to make certain types of movements, especially of our hands and mouths, to manipulate the world.
-Ability to plan movements far into the future
What happens to our sensory and motor processes when we perform real purposeful movements? Why?
They blur - because of the continuous interaction of these systems.
What are the 4 higher level motor areas?
1. Premotor cortex
2. Supplementary motor area
3. Posterior parietal cortex
4. Prefrontal cortex
What is the premotor cortex in Brodmann's terms?
Lateral part of Brodmann's area 6
Where is the Supplementary motor area?
In the medial part of Brodmann's area 6; on top of frontal cortex in front of primary motor cortex
What is the primary motor cortex in brodmann's terms?
Area 4
What Brodmann's area is the Posterior Parietal Cortex? What gyri?
Areas 5 and 7
-Supramarginal gyrus
-Angular gyrus
What brodmann's area is the Prefrontal cortex in?
Area 8
2 methods for studying higher level motor area functions:
-PET
-FMRI
In a PET study, what areas will lite up if you simply flex your finger?
-M1 primary motor
-S1 primary sensory
What areas will lite up if you perform a finger movement sequence?
M1 + S1 + SMA
What areas will lite up if you only think about performing a finger movement sequence?
Only SMA
What does FMRI show when you flex your left finger?
That only the right M1 and S1 light up
What does FMRI show when you perform a finger movement pattern with your left finger?
-Right M1/S1 light up
-BOTH bilateral SMAs light up!
What does FMRI show if you only imagine moving your right finger in a complex pattern?
Only SMA lights up, but on both sides of the brain
In the Alien Hand case, what did the patient suffer from?
A right SMA and corpus callosum lesion
Which hand was the alien hand?
The left
What made voluntary control of her left alien hand worse?
Obstruction of the right visual hemifield
What improved voluntary control of the limb?
Bringing it into the right visual field
What happened when tactile objects were placed in the left alien hand?
It would grasp them, but the patient didn't voluntarily initiate the grasping.
What happened over a period of 2-3 months after the stroke?
The lady could control the hand through mental effort.
What does M1 control?
Contralateral distal limbs
What does SMA control?
-Bilateral proximal (shoulders)
-Bilateral distal (hands) via M1
If SMA controls the distal limbs via M1, how is it that they're still bilaterally controlled?
Via corpus callosum, each SMA talks to the other hemisphere
What happens when there is unilateral damage to the right SMA?
Voluntary Control of contralat distal limb will be less
Control of same side normal
Some control of controlateral side via the corpus callosum
Why does all control feel like it's coming from the shoulder in a unilateral SMA lesion + CC damage?
Because there is still bilateral control from the undamaged SMA to the proximal limb, but the distal limb is not getting SMA.
What happens when there is Unilateral SMA damage PLUS Corpus callosum damage?
The lateral premotor cortex takes over control of the contralateral distal limb, via M1
What are the 4 responsibilities of the SMA?
-Independent and coordinated control of the two hands
-Planning of motor activity
-Developing a preparatory state
-Programming and coordinating complex movements
What does the SMA have a critical role in?
Our ability to act intentionally and voluntarily initiate motor activities
What does the voluntary initiation of a motor act involve?
Transmission of an instruction from SMA to M1
What do we see from the alien hand situation?
That the SMA has an important inhibitory role as well.
What was the "Alien" in the alien hand situation?
Lateral Premotor Cortex
What do we see that Lateral Premotor Cortex is responsible for?
-Movements of exploration and grasping driven by tactile or visual stimulation
-Responsive actions triggered by environmental stimuli for a particular response
What controls disgusting unintentional acts like scratching and nose blowing and picking pimples unconsciously?
Lateral premotor cortex
2 additional things controlled by the lateral premotor cortex:
-Registering/recognizing and assessing external stimuli to initiate appropriate responses
-Set related activities
What is the Posterior Parietal Lobe's involvement in motor systems?
-Coordinates spatial relationships among objects
-Visual info for targeted movements
What does the posterior parietal lobe send output to?
-Premotor cortex
What does the posterior parietal lobe receive input from?
-Visual cortex
-Somatosensory
-Vestibular system
-Motor and premotor
-Limbic and cingulate cortexes
What does the posterior parietal lobe recieve input from the motor and premotor areas about?
Motor plans
What does the posterior parietal lobe recieve input from the limbic and cingulate cortices about?
Motivational state
What is the prefrontal cortex responsible for?
Long term plans
-Initiation
-Selection
-guidance of behavior
Test for determining if the Prefrontal cortex was lesioned:
Card sort test
What would indicate a lesion of the Prefrontal cortex?
Inability to switch method of sorting (blacks vs reds to jacks vs nonjacks)