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159 Cards in this Set

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What are the 5 max treadmill tests?
CSEP - HPA
Costill + Fox
Modified Bruce
Modified Astrand
Maksid + Coutts
What are the 3 bike max tests?
CSEP High Performance Athlete
Astrand
McArdle
What are the 3 bike max tests?
CSEP High Performance Athlete
Astrand
McArdle
What are the 3 areas of DISEASE PREVENTION?
1) Primary > Prevention
2) Secondary > Screening
3) Tertiary > Councelling
What RER represents CHO metabolism?
CHO = 1.0
What RER represents fat metabolism?
Fat = 0.70
What RER represents a combination of CHO and fat metabolism?
Anything between 0.70 and 1.0
What is RER?
RESPIRATORY EXCHANGE RATIO:
-represents the amount of CO2 produced divided by O2 consumed.
-VCO2/VO2
-Provides index of CHO & Fat metabolism.
What are the DON'T'S of an exercise program for someone with osteoporosis?
-No high impact
-No spinal flexion, crunches, rowing
-no trampolines or stepper
-no wood gym floors
-no abduction/adduction legs against resistance
What is the effect of Caffeine on exercise?
Increased mobilization of free fatty acids and the availability of FFA for muscle catabolism
What are the optimal and high concentration levels of LDL-C?
Optimum < 100 mg LDL
High > 160
What is the optimal and low concentration levels of HDL-C?
Optimal >60 mgldL
Low < 40
What are the BMI values for weight classification (underweight, normal, overweight, obese class I, class II, class III)
Underweight < 18.5
Normal 18.5-24.9
Overweight 25.0-29.9
Obesity:
Class I 30.0-34.9
Class II 35.0-39.9
Class III >40.0
During exercise how much energy do you get from FAT?
25%
During rest where does your primary source of energy come from?
60% from fats
What are 4 isssues requiring referal?
1. Disordered eating
2. Compulsive/obsessive exercise
3. Overuse injuries
4. Supplements
What are the S.M.A.R.T. goal setting steps?
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Realistic
Time oriented
What is LDL-C?
High proportion of cholesterol and phospholipids but little triglycerides. *causes plaque
What are the 3 areas of DISEASE PREVENTION?
1) Primary > Prevention
2) Secondary > Screening
3) Tertiary > Councelling
What RER represents CHO metabolism?
CHO = 1.0
What RER represents fat metabolism?
Fat = 0.70
What RER represents a combination of CHO and fat metabolism?
Anything between 0.70 and 1.0
What is RER?
RESPIRATORY EXCHANGE RATIO:
-represents the amount of CO2 produced divided by O2 consumed.
-VCO2/VO2
-Provides index of CHO & Fat metabolism.
What are the DON'T'S of an exercise program for someone with osteoporosis?
-No high impact
-No spinal flexion, crunches, rowing
-no trampolines or stepper
-no wood gym floors
-no abduction/adduction legs against resistance
What is the effect of Caffeine on exercise?
Increased mobilization of free fatty acids and the availability of FFA for muscle catabolism
What are the optimal and high concentration levels of LDL-C?
Optimum < 100 mg LDL
High > 160
What is the optimal and low concentration levels of HDL-C?
Optimal >60 mgldL
Low < 40
What are the BMI values for weight classification (underweight, normal, overweight, obese class I, class II, class III)
Underweight < 18.5
Normal 18.5-24.9
Overweight 25.0-29.9
Obesity:
Class I 30.0-34.9
Class II 35.0-39.9
Class III >40.0
During exercise how much energy do you get from FAT?
25%
During rest where does your primary source of energy come from?
60% from fats
What are 4 isssues requiring referal?
1. Disordered eating
2. Compulsive/obsessive exercise
3. Overuse injuries
4. Supplements
What are the S.M.A.R.T. goal setting steps?
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Realistic
Time oriented
What is LDL-C?
High proportion of cholesterol and phospholipids but little triglycerides. *causes plaque
What are the 3 areas of DISEASE PREVENTION?
1) Primary > Prevention
2) Secondary > Screening
3) Tertiary > Councelling
What RER represents CHO metabolism?
CHO = 1.0
What RER represents fat metabolism?
Fat = 0.70
What RER represents a combination of CHO and fat metabolism?
Anything between 0.70 and 1.0
What is RER?
RESPIRATORY EXCHANGE RATIO:
-represents the amount of CO2 produced divided by O2 consumed.
-VCO2/VO2
-Provides index of CHO & Fat metabolism.
What are the DON'T'S of an exercise program for someone with osteoporosis?
-No high impact
-No spinal flexion, crunches, rowing
-no trampolines or stepper
-no wood gym floors
-no abduction/adduction legs against resistance
What is the effect of Caffeine on exercise?
Increased mobilization of free fatty acids and the availability of FFA for muscle catabolism
What are the optimal and high concentration levels of LDL-C?
Optimum < 100 mg LDL
High > 160
What is the optimal and low concentration levels of HDL-C?
Optimal >60 mgldL
Low < 40
What are the BMI values for weight classification (underweight, normal, overweight, obese class I, class II, class III)
Underweight < 18.5
Normal 18.5-24.9
Overweight 25.0-29.9
Obesity:
Class I 30.0-34.9
Class II 35.0-39.9
Class III >40.0
During exercise how much energy do you get from FAT?
25%
During rest where does your primary source of energy come from?
60% from fats
What are 4 isssues requiring referal?
1. Disordered eating
2. Compulsive/obsessive exercise
3. Overuse injuries
4. Supplements
What are the S.M.A.R.T. goal setting steps?
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Realistic
Time oriented
What is LDL-C?
High proportion of cholesterol and phospholipids but little triglycerides. *causes plaque
What are the 5 core conditions of effective counselling?
1. Developing a relationship + establishing rapport.
2. Authenticity + Genuineness
3. Unconditional positive regard and a non judgemental stance
4. Empathy and communication of empathy
5. Congruence
What is HDL-C?
Contain high proportion of protein, moderate amounts of cholesterol and phospholipids, and very little triglycerides.
What is LACTATE THRESHOLD and when does it occur?
LT is the exercise intensity at which blood lactate begins an abrupt increase above baseline concentration. It begins at 50 to 60% of max VO2 for untrained and 70 to 80% in trained individuals.
Which nutrient (CHO, fat, protein) can be metabolized for energy without direct involvement of O2?
CHO
What is hypoxia?
Lack of adequate O2
What is Hypertonic?
Having a higher osmotic pressure than a comparison solution.
What is Hyperpnea?
Hyperventilation: energetic (deep and rapid) respiration that occurs normally after exercise or abnormally with fever or various disorders
Define Type I Diabetes
Insulin dependent caused by lack of insulin production by pancreas
Define Type II Diabetes
Non-Insulin dependent caused by decreased insulin recepton sensitivity
What are 7 risk factors for CHD?
1. Family History
2. Hypercholesterolemia
3. Hypertension
4. Smoking
5. Impaired fasting glucose
6. Obesity
7. Physical Inactivity
Bone density will vary according to what 6 factors?
1. Age
2. Gender
3. Level of body fatness
4. Physical activity
5. Ethnicity
6. Relative contribution of H20, mineral, and protein
What is ARCHIMEDE'S PRINCIPLE?
The buoyant force acting on an object is equal to the mass of the water it displaces.
Explain the sliding filament theory shorthand.
-binding of calcium to troponin.
-coupling of myosin cross bridge with actin
-cross bridge felxion
-re-cocking of the myosin cross bridge head
Explain the ECG
P WAVE - Depolorization of the atria.
QRS WAVE - Ventricular depolorization/ventricular contraction
T WAVE - ventricular repolarization
What do glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex provide?
-fat utilization
-protein catobolism
-carbohydrate conservation
-enhance effect of adrenal medulla hormones (norepenephrine & epinephrine)
Fluid Intake Guidelines:
-Drink 2.5 cups 2hr prior to exercise.
-1.5 cups 15 min before competition.
-1 cup every 15-20 min during exercise
-HEAT = beverage should contain small amounts of sodium
-Intense Training = 6%-8% CHO
Define arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vo2):
The difference in the oxygen content, in milliliters per 100 milliliters blood, between arterial and venous blood.
What are the 5 health determinants according to CSEP?
1. Social + Economic Environment
2. Physical Environments
3. Personal Health Practices
4. Individual Capacity + Coping Skills
5. Health Service
Explain the Fick Equation:
Expresses the relationship of cardiac output, oxygen uptake, and arteriovenous difference: Q=VO2/avo2diff
What is the O2 dissociation curve?
A graph that shows the percent saturation of hemoglobin at various partial pressures of O2. Trained individuals shift to the right on the curve = greater ability of O2 to bind to hemoglobin.
What is sarcoplasm and what does it contain?
Sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of the muscle fibre. It contains contractile components which consist of:
-protein filaments
-other proteins
-stored glycogen
-fat particles
-enzymes
-special organelles (mithochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum)
How long does it take to remove LACTIC ACID?
- 10 min to remove 25%
- 25 min to remove 50%
-1hr/45 min to remove 95%
What are the essential components of mechanical loading?
-magnitude of the load (intensity)
-rate (speed) of the loading
-direction of the forces
-volume of the loading (# of reps)
What are 3 stages of the body's reaction to stress?
1. ALARM REACTION STAGE: body percieves stress - fight or flight.
2. RESISTANCE + ADAPTATION STAGE: resist and adapt to stressor --> may lose this ability if stress is too long!
3. EXHAUSTIVE STAGE: illness or even death.
What does Insulin do?
-facilitates the uptake and utilization of glucose by various tissues in the body but mainly muscles and adipose tissue.
What effects does heat have on training?
-Neural impairment
-decrease sweat responce
-decrease body water so decrease plasma
-decrease stroke volume
-increase heart rate
*circulatory distress
What are the DESIRABLE, BORDERLINE HIGH, and HIGH concentrations of TOTAL CHOLESTEROL?
DESIRABLE = <200mg/dL
BORDERLINE HIGH = 200-239
HIGH = 240+
What are the criteria for a VO2max termination? (7 points)
1. With increased workload - VO2 remains constant (no more than 0.1 ml.kg.min change)
2. Volitional fatigue
3. RER exceeds 1.1-1.2
4. Blood lactate exceeds 10mmol.L (if measured)
5. Abnormal EKG (Multiple PVC's)
6. Any significant drop in SBP or SBP does not rise with increased workload.
7. Lightheadedness, nausea, or physiological distress.
What are the 8 principles of training?
1. Specificity
2. Overload
3. Progression
4. Reversibility
5. Adaptation
6. Mode
7. Duration
8. Frequency
What are 3 methods of determining residual volume?
1. O2 dilution method
2. Estimation from vital capacity
3. Estimation from age + height
List some physiological adaptations to chronic exercise:
-Larger heart
-decreased HR for given submax intensities
-greater stroke volume
-lower BP
-increased volume of plasma
-increased red blood cell counts
-increased VO2max
Define glycogen:
The storage form of glucose
Define Phosphorylating:
Adding a phosphate
Define Mitochondria:
Where aerobic metabolism occurs. The "powerhouse" of the cell.
Define Pyruvate:
End product of glycolysis
Define Glycolysis:
Breakdown of CHO to ATP
Explain a 3rd Class Lever:
A lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through a moment arm shorter than that through which the resistive force acts. The mechanical advantage is thus less than 1.0, so the muscle force has to be greater than the resistive force to produce torque equal to that produced by the resistive force. (i.e. the biceps in a DB curl)
Explain a 2nd Class Lever:
A lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through a moment arm longer than that through which the resistive force acts, as when the calf muscles work to raise the body onto the balls of the feet. Due to it's mechanical advantage, the required muscle force is smaller than the resistive force.
Explain a 1st class Lever:
A lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on opposite sides of the fuclrum. (i.e. Elbow extension against resistance)
Define fibrous joints:
Fibrous joints allow virtually no movement. Since there is no joint cavity it is held together by fibrous tissue. (i.e. sutures of the skull)
Name and define 3 kinds of fibrous joints:
1. Sutures of the skull
2. Syndesmoses - provides "give" - distal end of tibia, fibula
3. Gomphoses - "peg in socket joint" - tooth in socket
What is Basal Metabolic Rate?
BMR - the minimum amount of energy needed to maintain basic and essential physiological function. Difficult to assess so use RMR.
Explain the INITIAL Conditioning Phase:
-4-6 weeks
-3-4 X per week
-15-20 min
-40-60% VO2max
-200-600 kcal/week
-Active would skip this phase
Explain the IMPROVEMENT phase:
-16-20 weeks
-50-85% of HRR
-20-30 min (increasing)
-3-5 x per week
-1000 to 2000 kcal per week
Explain MAINTENANCE phase:
-After 5 or 6 months
-May require increases frequency, duration, and intensity
Explain SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY (BANDURA:
-personal, behavioral, and environmental factors operate as reciprocally interacting determinants of each other.
RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM
-A big determinant is the individuals belief that they can successfully perform a behavior (self efficacy)
Explain the Karvonen Formula:
The mathematical formula that uses maximum heart rate minus resting heart rate to determine target heart rate.
THRZ=(HRmax-HRrest)XTHR%+HRrest
THR-[exercise intensity% X (HRmax-HRrest)]+HRrest
What tools would you use for the 5 stages of the transtheoretical model?
PRECONTEMPLATION -> motivation list
CONTEMPLATION -> decision balance
PREPERATION -> Goal-setting, daily activity log, first step planner
ACTION -> Goal-setting, daily activity log, first step planner, relapse planner
MAINTENANCE -> Goal-setting worksheet, daily activity log, relapse planner
What is Decision Balance?
The balance between the benefits and costs associated with the target behaviour
What is Personal Investment Theory?
Strengthening the sense of self and goal directness, increasing social support, personal development, increasing opportunities and benefits of PV.
Trace the flow of blood through the body and heart:
LEFT SIDE > lungs to pulmonary veins to left atrium to left ventricle to Aorta and branches <BODY> to Venae Cavae to right atrium to right ventricle to pulmonary arteries to lungs
Explain the FRONTAL PLANE (motions, axis, etc.):
A verticle plane running from side to side; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions.
Motions: abduction & adduction
Axis: anterior-posterior axis
Explain the SAGITTAL PLANE(motions, axis, etc.):
A verticle plane running from front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides.
Motions: Flexion & Extension
Axis: coronal axis
Explain the TRANSVERSE PLANE (motions, axis, etc.):
A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts.
Motions: Rotation
Axis: Longitudinal Axis
What does CORTISOL do?
-converts amino acids to CHO
-increases levels of proteolytic enzymes (break down of proteins)
-inhibits protein synthesis
What does growth hormone do?
-enhances cellular amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in the muscle:
-hypertrophy
-decreased glucose utilization
-decreased glycogen synthesis
-increased utilization of fatty acids
-increased lipolysis
What is Resting Metabolic Rate?
(Equation)
RMR - minimum amount of calories needed for daily functioning in a relaxed, awake, and reclined state.
RMR=[(surface area^2x35kcal/hr]x24hr
RMR accounts for 50 to 70% of total daily caloric needs.
What is THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR?
-argues that intentions cannot be the sole predictors of behaviors; especially in situations in which people might lack some control over the behavior.
Health Belief Model:
-likelihood of an individual engaging in preventitive health behaviors.
-depends on ones perception of severity of potential illness as well as their appraisal of costs and benefits of taking action.
What is health promotion?
-process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health
What are 3 methods of determining RESIDUAL VOLUME?
1. O2 dilution method
2. Estimation from vital capacity
3. Estimation from age and height
What is BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION?
-application of principles of positive and negative reinforcement to help produce desirable behaviors and eliminate undesirable ones
What is maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)?
VO2 max is the maximum amount of oxygen in milliliters, one can use in one minute per kilogram of body weight.
What is rate-pressure product?
Rate Pressure Product = HR x systolic BP --> the work of the heart during systole
What is mean arterial pressure?
The average BP throughout the cardiac cycle:
M.A.P.=[(SBP-DBP)/3]+DBP
Explain the Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training for the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM:
-increased mitochondrial size and density
-increased oxidative enzyme concentration
-increased myoglobin concentration
-increased capillarization in muscle bed
-increased arteriovenous 02 difference
Explain the Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training for the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
-enhanced O2 exchange in the lungs
-improved blood flow throughout the lungs
-decreased submax pulmonary ventilation
-decreased submax respiratory rate
Explain the Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training for the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:
-increased cardiac output
-increased blood volume, red blood cell #, and hemoglobin concentration
-enhanced blood flow to skeletal muscle
-reduced submax HR
-improved thermoregulation
What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum do?
Regulation of calcium and control muscular contraction.
What is an action potential?
-an electrical impulse
-arrives simultaneously from the surface to all depths of the muscle fibre.
-calcium is then released throughout muscle causing a coordinated contraction.
What are the pre-test controls?
-Resting HR <95 bpm (less than or equal to 94 ok)
-Resting BP less than or equal to 144/94 mmHg
-Free of acute infection
-no smoking 2 hr prior
-no alcohol 6 hr prior
-no caffeine 2 hr prior
-no eating 2 hr prior
-no exercise 6 hr prior
What are VE values at rest and max?
Rest = 8-12 Lmin
Exercise = 150 +
What are 4 submax bike tests?
-Astrand
-ACSM
-PWC170
-YMCA
What are tidal volume values?
Rest = 0.5 (500 ml)
Exercise = increase during submax then plateus at higher workloads (~4.0)
What is the proper fit test order?
1. Resting BP + HR
2. Body comp
3. Cardiorespiratory endurance
4. Muscular fitness
5. Flexibility
What is the difference between validity and reliability?
Validity = accuracy
Reliability = consistency
*test reliability affects test validity!
Define Cardiac Output:
-How much blood the heart is capable of pumping in exactly 1 min.
-Cardiac Output = HR X SV
-Primary mechanism for increasing VO2max
What is the path of the electrical conduction of the heart?
SA Node -> AV Node -> AV Bundle (left bundles & right bundles) -> Purkinje fibres
What do the left and right bundle branches of the heart do?
Continue impulse from AV Node
Where do Purkinje Fibres conduct impulses?
Conducts impulses to all parts of the ventricles
What are the STAGES OF PROGRESSION?
1. Initial Conditioning Phase
2. Improvement Phase
3. Maintenance Phase
What is the SA Node?
Sinoatrial Node - intrinsic pacemaker where electrical impulses are initiated.
What is the AV Node?
Atrioventricular Node - impulse is delayed before going to the ventricles
What is the AV Bundle?
Atrioventricular Bundle - Conducts impulse to ventricles
What is the difference between absolute VO2 and Relative VO2?
Absolute - measure of energy cost for non-weight bearing activites (ex. bike)
Relative - measure of energy cost of weight bearing activities (ex. running)
What are the measurements for at risk men + women for WHR?
Men = 0.94
Women = 0.82
What is the equation to measure HR from ECG?
beat/min = (6/distance measured mm) X 1500mm/min
What are the stages of the TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL?
1. Precontemplation
2. Contemplation
3. Preparation
4. Action
5. Maintenance
What is lordosis?
Exageration of the lumbar curve. From:
-increased weight of abdomen
-poor posture
-TB/rickets
What is scoliosis?
Lateral bending of the spine (usually in the thoracic region). From:
-paralyis of muscles on 1 side
-1 leg shorter
-congenital
-poor posture
What is kyphosis?
Exageration of the thoracic curve. From:
-degeneration
-poor posture
-common in females with advanced osteoporosis
What is the effect of static and dynamic exercise on BP?
-Static causes higher elevation in BP
-Dynamic elevates then drops -> when muscles stop there is no longer a pump to propel blodd back to the heart
When doing a max test what are the signs of Aerobic Threshold, Anaerobic Threshold, 3. Isocupnic Bufferning
1. first disproportionate increase in VE relative to VO2.
2. Disproportionate increase in VE relative to VCO2
3. Period where VE + VCO2 increase porpotionately (*lines cross)
What is a synovial joint? List the 6 structural components of a synovial joint.
A freely movable joint with:
1. articular cartilage
2. a joint cavity
3. articular capsule
4. synovial fluid
5. reinforcing ligaments
6. nerves and vessels
List physiological responses to chronic exercise:
-Increase VO2max
-Increase stroke volume
-decrease HR at rest and during submax
-improves oxidative capacity at skeletal muscles
-decrease blood lactate
Define Ishcehmia:
Lack of blood supply to a body part.
Define Angina Pectoris:
Temporary sensation of tightening and heavy pressure in the chest + shoulder region.
Define Tachycardia:
Resting HR greater than 100 bpm.
Define Badycardia:
Resting HR less than 60 BPM.
Define Dyspnea:
Is perceived difficulty breathing or pain on breathing. It is a common symptom of numerous medical disorders.
Define Orthostatic Hypotension:
Decreased blood pressure from change in position (ex. when you stan you get dizzy).
-can't pump blood back as fast as it is needed.
What is Densitometry?
Measurement of whole body density based on relationship between density, mass, and volume.
What is passive ROM?
Motion that examiner can move joint without assistance from the subject.
What are the 5 submax treadmill tests?
1. Single stage treadmill walking
2. Single stage jogging
3. Balke
4. Bruce
5. Modified Bruce
What are the 5C's for activity enjoyment?
1. Competence
2. Challenge
3. Control
4. Choice
5. Commitment
Name the 3 main plains and the movement that happens within them:
1. Sagital - Flexion & Ext.
2. Frontal - Add and abduction
3. Transverse - rotation
Name and describe the levels of the ACSM Risk Stratification:
1. Low Risk
Younger individuals (men <45 years, women <55 years) who are asymptomatic and meet no more than one risk factor
2. Moderate Risk
Men >45 years, women >55 years or individuals who meet the threshold for two or more risk factors and are asymptomatic
3. High Risk
Individuals with one or more signs and symptoms for cardiovascular disease, individuals with known cardiovascular (including peripheral vascular disease, cerebral vascular disease), pulmonary (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis) or metabolic (renal, liver or thyroid disorder) disease.
Name and explain Newton's 3 Laws:
I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
II. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.
III. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
What is VE?
Minute Ventilation
-volume of air moving into and out of the lungs
-product of respiratory rate and the volume of air exhaled with each breath (tidal volume)
What are the desirable and high levels of triglycerides?
Desirble: Less than or equal to 150 mg/dL
High: Greater than 200 mg/dL
What is the Force-Velocity Relationship?
Force production is inversely related to velocity of shortening during CONCENTRIC contration. (Fast movemens = less force production, Heavier Loads = Slower movements)
Eccentric = as velocity increases so does max force.