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### 22 Cards in this Set

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 A problem consists of... some initial state in which a person begins and a goal state that is to be attained, plus a non-obvious way of getting from the first to the second well structured/defined problems completely specified starting condictions, goal state, and methods for achieving this goal ill structured/defined some aspects not completely specified problem spaces universe of all possible action (whole range of states and operations) that can be applied to solving a problem, given any constraints that apply to the solution analogies retrieve a representaion of a problem from memory that is similar to the problem you currently face...tend to miss deep similarities because they tend to focus on surface similarities transfer carryover of knowledge or skills from one situation to another positive transfer helps solve current problems, knowledge in one situation helps your ability to solve other problems negative transfer impedes solving current problem, previous method believed to be most efficent, chooding the wrong analogy functional fixedness see an object as having only a fixed familiar function algorithms a method that will lead to a guaranteed solution... consider all possible moves within problem space heuristics short cuts / "rules of thumb".. will not always work generate and test random, and it is just trial and error... not a good choice to solve problems hill climbing (difference reduction) at any point, select the operator that moves you closer to the goal state, never choose operator that moves you away from the goal working backwards transform goal state so it is more similar to the initial state, begin at the end, helpful with mazes means - end analysis difference reduction and subgoaling. identify largest difference between current state and goal state. Set subgoal to reduce difference, final and apply an opertor to reduce differences insight distinctive and often seemingly sudden understanding of problem or strategy.. specifically useful for ill defined problems.. may minimize negative transfer selective encoding - insight distinguish relevant vs irrelevant info selective comparison - insight novel perceptions of how new inforelates to old info (analogies) selective combination - insight combining info in new ways (over-coming functional fixedness) Incubation problem solving without thinking... sleep on it.. may also minimize negative transfer possible mechanisms of incubation forget unimportant details. integration with other memories new stimuli may activate new perspectives or analogies great capacity, spreading activation Incubation: Enhancing initial investment: explore as many aspects as possible. allow enough time, not a good method if you have a deadline