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22 Cards in this Set

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A problem consists of...
some initial state in which a person begins and a goal state that is to be attained, plus a non-obvious way of getting from the first to the second
well structured/defined problems
completely specified starting condictions, goal state, and methods for achieving this goal
ill structured/defined
some aspects not completely specified
problem spaces
universe of all possible action (whole range of states and operations) that can be applied to solving a problem, given any constraints that apply to the solution
analogies
retrieve a representaion of a problem from memory that is similar to the problem you currently face...tend to miss deep similarities because they tend to focus on surface similarities
transfer
carryover of knowledge or skills from one situation to another
positive transfer
helps solve current problems, knowledge in one situation helps your ability to solve other problems
negative transfer
impedes solving current problem, previous method believed to be most efficent, chooding the wrong analogy
functional fixedness
see an object as having only a fixed familiar function
algorithms
a method that will lead to a guaranteed solution... consider all possible moves within problem space
heuristics
short cuts / "rules of thumb".. will not always work
generate and test
random, and it is just trial and error... not a good choice to solve problems
hill climbing (difference reduction)
at any point, select the operator that moves you closer to the goal state, never choose operator that moves you away from the goal
working backwards
transform goal state so it is more similar to the initial state, begin at the end, helpful with mazes
means - end analysis
difference reduction and subgoaling.
identify largest difference between current state and goal state. Set subgoal to reduce difference, final and apply an opertor to reduce differences
insight
distinctive and often seemingly sudden understanding of problem or strategy.. specifically useful for ill defined problems.. may minimize negative transfer
selective encoding - insight
distinguish relevant vs irrelevant info
selective comparison - insight
novel perceptions of how new inforelates to old info (analogies)
selective combination - insight
combining info in new ways (over-coming functional fixedness)
Incubation
problem solving without thinking... sleep on it.. may also minimize negative transfer
possible mechanisms of incubation
forget unimportant details.
integration with other memories
new stimuli may activate new perspectives or analogies
great capacity, spreading activation
Incubation: Enhancing
initial investment: explore as many aspects as possible.
allow enough time, not a good method if you have a deadline