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44 Cards in this Set

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Torpedo, 12.75" diameter lightweight for use by helicopters, aircraft, and surface ships
Smaller warhead, shorter range than ADCAP
Used by U.S. and other Navies
First commissioned sub?
USS Holland (SS-1), 1900
Basic important characteristic of modern sub?
ability to submerge and become virtually invisible
Advantages of stealth?
Covertness, Surprise, Survivability, Uncertainty, Non-provocative, Total offense
SS (K)
most widespread throughout world's navies, diesel-electric propulsion, "conventional boats,"
K for coastal water ops
Nuclear powered attack sub, more enfurance, does not need to surface or snorkel to change batteries
Food and weapons, not fuel, limits endurance
Cruise missile sub, carry missile designed to fight surface vessels (i.e. NATO CVBGs) or strike land targets in a power projection tole
Primarily operated by Russia, China
SSGN conversion program has been undertaken by US
Ballistic Missile Sub, nuclear triad part, not designed to engage other vessels, but do have torpedos for self-defense
U.S., Russia, China, France, UK have SSBN's
ADCAP (Advanced Capability) Torpedo
principal heavyweight (21" diameter, 4000lb, max speed 55 kts) carried by all U.S. SSN's
Capable of sinking most of the world's warships by detonating a 650lb warhead underneath the ship's keel and breaking its back
Follows a pre-programmed search and uses active seeker head to hunt and destroy its target, also controlled by guidance wire (unless broken)
Range: 35,000 yards
First sub to sink an enemy warship?
CSS Hunley in Civil War, sunk Union ship, but also sunk itself
Subs lost in WWII?
52 in Pacific "still on patrol"
First nuclear powered sub?
USS Nautilus SSN-571, under Admiral Rickover
Subs at the end of the Cold War? Now?
Post-Cold War: 100 attack sub, 35 ballisitic missile subs
Today - 60 attack subs, 18 ballistic missile subs
New duties? Most important one?
tactical strike, surveillance, special forces delivery and recovery
Types of Sub Ops?
To provide the NCA, Unified CDR's and Joint Task CDR's with:
Peacetime Ops, Surveillance/Intelligence/Reconaissance
Special Ops
Precision Strike
Sea Denial
Peacetime Ops?
Support U.S. defense agenda w/flexible forward presence through a spectrum of activities such as deployments, combined exercises and operations, port visits and military-to-military relations
Involves transmitting real-time info to avert or mitigate crises, collecting intelligence of long-term value. Subs also act as the unseen eyes and ears of the task group, and operate w/relative impunity in waters controlled by hostile forces
Special Ops?
Involve inserting small groups of forces ashore or reconnoitering coastal areas in advance of amphibious ops.
Precision Strike?
The new roll for the sub, which can attack targets ashore w/in 650 miles of the coast w/Tomahawk cruise missiles
Sea Denial?
Interdicting threatening surface and subsurface forces, as well as merchant shipping , thereby denying access to regions where unacceptably high risks to friendly surface and air forces exists.
Both missile subs and attack subs participate in the mission of deterrence. The primary peacetime roll of the ballistic missile subs - the most survivable element of the Nuclear Triad - will continue to be nuclear deterrence. Additionally, as a conventional deterrent , the attack sub is a ubiquitous threat that can exert pressure on nearly any trouble spot in the world with minimal risk to U.S. live. Many see deterrence as the most important role of today's sub community. Increasingly, the NCA is asking "Where are our subs?" (not carriers)
Nuclear TRiad?
land, air, and sea strategic ballisitc missile forces
2 Classifications of Antisub Warfare?
Protective Ops - defend surface ships , involves predicting where an enemy sub migh position itselfto intercept surface ships, and estimating the enemy sub's abilities to harm the battle group
Offensive Ops - Offensive ASW neutralizes a detected sub w/weapons, or causes the enemy to flee
Sub Strengths?
1 - Quiet, stealthy
2 - Carries Heavy Mk48 ADCAP
3 - Good acoustic sensors
4 - "In the medium"
Sub Weaknesses?
Difficult to contact underwatre for changes in orders
Surface Vessel strengths?
1 - Large weapon/sensor load
2 - Command, control, and communications capability
3 - Can coordinate w/aircraft
Surface Vessel Weaknesses?
1 - Difficult to detect subs
2 - Very vulnerable to sub attack
Aircraft strengths?
1 - Speed in getting on station
2 - Large radar coverage to detect snorkels
3 - Not generally vulnerable to sub attack
Aircraft weaknesses?
1 - Low on station patrol time
2 - Small weapons load
Mission Definition
The mission of Anti-Submarine Warfare is to deny the enemy effective use of the undersea environment. Denying the effective use is not necessarily destroying the enemy's platforms. Denying the enemy sea control or the capability to prosecute offensive undersea warfare can be accomplished through various active and passive maneuvers.
First Sub?
Turtle, 1776
Towed Array Sonar?
Towed arrays are hydrophones spaced out along a wire dragged behind a sub.
Separate from sub, can pick up more sensitive sounds, but target poistion is ambiguous (must be resolved by coordination w/other vessels or moving to triangulate)
WAA (Wide Aperture Array) Sonar?
A series of large panels arranged on the flanks of the Seawolf and Virginia class subs and on three 688's
WAA is an electronically scanned sonar comparable in function to the AEGIS radar system (SPY-1), exploits latest wideband technology
Low cost, short life-span, encapsulated acoustic systems
Dropped into water by aircraft and info recieved is radioed back to aircraft
Used in the localization phase of USW
Patterns range from widespread barriers to very close attack patterns
Hull-Mounted Array Sonar?
Hull mounted arrays are optimized for low frequencies, which travel longer in water. They are passive and spread across the ship to allow accurate ranging by giving a wide sample of angles to a target by which to triangulate target position and speed from great ranges
successor to Mk46 (same weight, dimensions)
faster, can operate deeper, better tracking and detection sensors, shaped charge warhead, less noisy, not as easily fooled by counter measures
Tomahawk cruise misslie, launched from 21" diameter tubes, or VLS of SSN 688i LA class sub
SLMM (Sub launched mobile mine)
modified Mk37
used for mining of otherwise inaccessible areas or for covert mining of an enemy's territory
self propelled (delivery vehicale doesn't have to enter area it wished to mine)
Magnetic, Acoustic, and Pressure detonating systems
Trident C4/D5
SLBM (sub-Launched Ballistic Missile)
Long range ballistic missile carried by all Ohios
Most have multiple independently targeted reentry vehicales (MIRV's) to enable a single missile to spread nuclear warheads over a region of targets
Types of sonar equipment?
active, passive, hull-mounted array, towed array, wide aperture array (WAA), sonobouys
Active sensors transmit a pulse of sound through the water and listen for reflection off the skin of the target
Passive Sonar?
Passive sensors recieve sound energy generated by the target, such as from machinery, flow noise, and propeller cavitation
No pulse, more covert
Subs and Undersesa Warfare