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24 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 elements that create left turning tendency?
1. Torque reaction
2.Corkscrewing of slip stream
3. Gyroscopic action (precession)
4. Asymmetric loading of propeller (P-Factor)
Torque Reaction
As internal engine parts and propeller are revolving in one direction, an equal force is trying to rotate the aircraft in the opposite direction. Acting around longitudinal axis making the aircraft roll.
Corkscrewing effect of slipstream
Rotation of propeller gives a spiraling rotation to the slipstream. At high prop speed and low forward speed this spiraling rotation is compact and exerts strong sideways force on vertical tail surface
Gyroscopic actioin (precession)
Precession is the resultant action, or deflection, of a spinning rotor when a deflecting force is applied to its rim. When a force is applied , the resulting force takes effect 90 degrees ahead of and in the direction of rotation.
Asymmetric loading (P-Factor)
When an aircraft is flying with a high AOA, the bite of the downward moving blade is greater than the bite of the upward moving blade. This moves the center of the thrust to the right of the prop causing yaw to the left.
Asymmetric loading is caused by the resultant velocity, which is generated by the combination of the velocity of the prop blade in its plane of rotation and the velocity of the air passing horizontally through the prop.
Forward force produced by the power plant. Opposes or overcomes the force of drag. In general acts parallel to the longitudinal axis
A rearward or retarding force caused by disruption of airflow by the wing, fuselage and other protruding objects. Opposes thrust. Acts rearward parallel to relative wind
Combined load of aircraft, fuel, passengers, and cargo. Weight pulls the aircraft downward because of the force of gravity. Opposes lift and acts downward vertically through the CG
Opposes the downward force of weight. Is produced by the dynamic effect of the air acting on the airfoil, and acts perpendicular to the flightpath through the center of lift
4 point checklist
Reverse command
In slow flight, to increase speed, you lower the nose. To increase altitude, you increase power.
Why is learning slow flight important
Learn to operate at minimum controllable air speed and with reduced effectiveness of control surfaces. Applies to take offs and landings.
V y
Best Rate - More altitude in shortest time
V x
Best angle - more altitude in shortest distance
After Take Off @ 1,000 feet
Fuel pump off.

Lower nose and check traffic.
At 3,500 Feet
Class Charlie Air Space
Lights, Camera, Action
Beacon, all exterior lights, transponder, fuel
Take Off Flow
-Lights (Beacon/Exterior Lights)
-Camera (Transponder)
-Action (Fuel Tank Check)
-Full Throttle Down Center Line!!!
-Right Rudder
-Weight off the nose
-Static RPM 5,350
-Gauges Green
-Air Speed Alive
-Rotate at 55
-Maintain Center Line!!!
-V x for 65 knot climb
Set up for slow flight
-Straight and level (Trim)
-Once below 70 knots put all flaps in
-Nose up and slowly take out power
-37 knots!
-Maintain altitude!!! -Reverse Command
Landing Flow
Call out GUMPS checklist and pull out checklist

-Lights on
-Carb heat
-Gas (Best Tank)
-Seat Belts
The horizontal distance in inches from the reference datum line to the center of gravity of an item. (+) if measured aft of the datum, and minus (–) if measured forward of the datum.
Center of gravity (CG)
The point about which an airplane would balance if it were possible to suspend it at that point. It is the theoretical point at which the entire weight of the airplane is assumed to be concentrated. It may be expressed in inches from the reference datum, or in percent of mean aerodynamic chord (MAC).
Datum (reference datum)
an imaginary vertical plane or line from which all measurements of arm are taken.
the product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm. Moments are expressed in pound-inches (lb-in).