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36 Cards in this Set

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Winds Aloft
Above 24000'

IE: 771154
77-50=27 Add A 0 = 270
11+100=111 = 111KTS
54 = -54 Degrees
Area Forcast
- 3X Daily
- 6 Regions Of The US
- Valid For 18 Hours Total
Terminal Area Forcast (TAF)
TEMP 1820 09008KT:
- Temporarly B/T 1800Z & 2000Z Conditions Will Be:
- Wind 090 @ 08KTS

FM2200 25005KT P6SM SKC
- From 2200Z
Conditions Will Be:
- Wind: 250 @ 05KTS
- Visibility: Plus 6SM
- Clouds: Skattered

FM0200 VRB05KT P6SM FEW250
- From 0200Z
Conditions Will Be:
- Wind: Variable @ 05KTS
- Visibility: Plus 6SM
- Clouds: Few @ 25000'
SFAR 73 - Robbinson Helicopter Flight Experience
Annual Flight Review:
- >200 Hours In A Helicopter
- >50 Hours In A Rob R22/R44

Biannual Flight Review:
- <200 Hours In A Helicopter
- <50 In Rob R22/R44
Fuel Requirements
- Day
- Night
- UHI
Day:
- 20 Minutes
Night:
- 20 Minutes
UHI:
- 30 Minutes
- 1/4 Of A Tank
Night Lighting Requirements
- FAR
- POH
FAR: FLAPE
- F: Fuses (Extra)
- L: Landing Light
- A: Anit-Collision Light
- P: Position/Nav Lights
- E: Extra Source Of Power(Alternator Or Generator)

POH: NAIL
- N: Nav/Position Lights
- A: Anti-Collision Lights
- I: Instrument Lights (ALL)
- L: Landing Light
Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC)
- 20 Stations In The US
- Direction & Coordination Of IFR Traffic
- Issue IFR Clearances
- Manage IFR Traffic
- Can Also Provide VFR:
-> Traffic Advisories
-> Course Guidance
-> Vectors
-> Can Assist Lost Or Disoriented Aircraft

ARTCC EX:
- Albuquerque Center
- Los Angeles Center
- Oakland Center
- Kansas City Center
Air Defense Identification Zone Line (ADIZ Line)
Out Of The US:
- Must Be On An IFR Or DVFR Flight Plan
- Must Contact ARTCC Where Crossing Will Occur
- Must Contact ARTCC @Least 15 Minutes Before Crossing
- Must State Point & Time Of Crossing
- Must Cross W/I 10NM Of Stated Point
- Must Cross W/I 5 Minutes Of Stated Time
- No Night Crossing (Except IFR)

Entering The US:
- Must Be On An IFR Or DVFR Flight Plan
- Must Contact ARTCC Where Crossing Will Occur
- Must Contact ARTCC @Least 1 Hour Before Crossing
- Must State Point & Time Of Crossing
- Must Cross W/I 10NM Of Stated Point Over Land (20NM Over Water)
- Must Cross W/I 5 Minutes Of Stated Time
- No Night Crossing (Except IFR)
Special VFR
Page 176 - 91.157
- Needed To Enter, Exit Or Operate W/I Controlled Airspace With Active ATC
- When Conditions Are At Or Below IFR Weather Minimums
IE:
- Ceiling >1000'
- Visibility > 3SM

Airspace Where SVFR Is Availible:
- Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta & Echo

- Must Be Requested By The Pilot
- Must Operate "Clear Of Clouds"
Light Beacons
Airport: Green-White
Heliport: Green-White-Yellow

Military: White-Green-White
Seaport: White-Yellow
Enroute Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)
- Frequecy: 122.0
- Provided By Flight Service Station (FSS)

IE: Prescott Flight
Flight Service Station (FSS)
- ATC Facility Providing A Variety Of Services
-> WX Briefings
-> Enroute Communictions
-> VFR Search & Rescue
-> Assist Lost Aircraft
-> Assist Aircraft In Emergency Situations
-> Relay ATC Clearances
-> Originate Notams
-> Broadcast WX
-> Broadcast Airspace Info.
-> Receive & Process Flight Plans
-> Monitor Nav Aides
Mode C (Altitude Encoding) Transponder
- Needed In Alpha, Bravo & Charlie Airspace
- Needed In Delta Airspace When Under The 30NM Veil Of Bravo Airspace
- Needed In Echo Airspace When Flying Over Charlie Airspace (Even Below 10000' MSL)
- Needed Whenever Flight Is Above 10000' MSL - Only Excluding Altitudes B/T Zero & 2500' AGL

IE:
You Are Flying Above 10000' MSL, But You Are >2500' AGL Over A Mountain Peak
Mode S Transponder
- Altitude Encoding
- Assigns A Tail# Or Vin# For Aircraft Identification, Eliminating The NEED To Squak Different Codes During Normal Operation
- Can Also Receive In Route Information In The Form Of Text Messages
- Further Applications Can Give Traffic Alerts And Show Other Aircraft Onscreen
Lost Communication Procedure
Climb
Communicate
Confess
Comply
Conserve

Climb
- Higher Altitude Allows Pilot To See More Land Increasing The Chance Of Locating Identifiable Lndmarks
- Improves Radio Range Increasing Ability To Utilize VOR, NDB Or DF Steer

Communicate
- With Any Available Facility
- Use Chart Frequencies, Including RCO & VOR
- In Dire Situations Use 121.5 The Emergency Frequency

Confess
- Your Situation To ATC Facility

Comply
- With Their Suggestions

Conserve
- Your Fuel By Reducing Power & Speed, Using Values For Max Endurance Or Range
Light Gun Signals
-Air-

Steady Green:
- Cleared To Land
Flashing Green:
- Return For Landing (Followed By A Steady Green)
Steady Red:
- Give Way To Other Aircraft
Flashing Red:
- Airport Unsafe (Do Not Land)
Alternating Green & Red:
- Use Extreme Caution

-Ground-
Steady Green:
- Cleared For Takeoff
Flashing Green:
- Cleared To Taxi
Steady Red:
- Stop
Flashing Red:
- Clear The Active Runway
Alternating Green & Red:
- Use Extreme Caution
White:
- Return To Starting Point
Night Vision
Blind Spot
- Where The Optic Nerve Meets The Retina
- No Rod Or Cones Located At This Point
Night Illusions
Narrow Runway
- Too High
Fat Runway
- Too Low
Down Sloping
-
Up Sloping
-
Spatial Disorientation
Note: The Brain Relies Heavily On Peripheral Vision For Body Position & Orientation

- Conflict B/T Central Vision & Peripheral Vision
Hypoxia
- Oxygen Depravation To The Cells

Hypoxic:
- Pressure
- Most Lethal
- Not Enough Pressure In The Atmosphere To Force o2 Into The Cells

Hypemic:
- Blood Deficiencey
- Carbonmonoxide (Most Prevelent Hypemic)
- Blood Can Not Effectively Transport o2 To The Cells

Stagnant:
- Pump Problem
- Weak Heart
- Clogged Arteries
- o2 Can Not Be Effective Pumped To The Cells

Histotoxic:
- Poison
- o2 Maybe Inhaled & Transported To The Cells In Adequete Amounts, But The Can Not Be Effective Used B/C Of The Presence Of Toxins

Result:
- Impaired Motor Function
- Impaired Judgement
- Unconsiousness
- Death

Recognition:
- Headache
- Euporia
- Impaired Vision
- Drowsiness
- Dizzyness
- Tingling In Fingers & Toes
- Numbness
- Blue Fingernails & Lips

Prevention:
- Good Health Choices
- Supplemental 02
- Reduced Altitude
Hyperventalation
Note:
Carbondioxide Regulates Breathing

- An Increase In Breathing Rate & Depth
- Excess Release Of Carbondioxide

Result:
- Unconsiousness

Leading Causes:
- Stress
- Fright
- Pain

Recovery:
- Consiously Slow Breathing Rate
- Talk Aloud
- Sing
- Breathe Into A Paper Bag
- Breathe Into Your Shirt
5 Hazardous Attitudes
1. Macho
- "Watch This"
- The Need To Impress Or Be Bold
2. Impulsivity
- Must Do Something/Anything - Now
3. Invulnerability
- It Can't Happen To Me
4. Anit-Authority
- The Rules Are Too Strick
- The Rules Do Not Apply To Me
5. Resignation
- I Can't Make A Difference
- Leave Decisions Up To Others
- Blame Others
ADM
- Identification & Evaluation Of Risk Elements

Pilot:
- Knowledge, Experience & Health
Aircraft:
- Condition & Equipment Onboard
Enviroment:
- Weather, Terrain, Communication Availibility, Familiarity Of Area, Etc...
Purpose/Operation:
- Leisure v. Necessity

All These Risk Elements Add Together To Form:
- Situation & Awareness

Consider Alternatives:
- Different Course
- Delay
- Cancellation
- Different Mode Of Transportation (Car)
D.E.C.I.D.E.R. Model
D: Define/Detect
- That A Change Was Made Or
- That A Change Needs To Be Made
E: Estimate
- The Need To Counter/Make A Change
C: Choose
- A Desired Outcome For Success Of The Flight
I: Identify
- The Action(s) Needed For Desired Outcome
D: Do
- The Necessary Action
E: Evaluate
- The Effect Of The Action
R: Re-Evaluate
- Progress Toward Desired Outcome
NTSB Reporting
Accident:
- Death
- Serious Injury
- Substantial Damage

Death:
- Person Dies

Serious Injury:
- Hospitalization For <48 Hours W/I 7 Days Of An Accident
- Broken Bones (Except: Nose, Fingers & Toes)
- Severe Hemmorage
- Tissue Damage
- Tendon Damage
- Muscle Damage
- Nerve Damage
- Internal Organ Damage
- 2nd Or 3rd Degree Burns <5% Of The Body

Substantial Damage:
Anything That Adversely Effects:
- Performance
- Flight Characteristics
- Structural Strength

Incident:
- Collision In Flight
- Fire In Flight
- Required Crew Member Becomes Ill & Can Not Perform Duties
- Flight Control Malfunction
- Failure Of Structural Component Of A Turbine
- Property Damage (Non-Aircraft) <$25,000.00

Immediate Notification (Phone):
1. Accident
2. Incident
3. Aircraft Is Overdue & Believed To Be Involved In An Accident

Written Reports:
Within 10 Days:
- If In An Accident
Within 7 Days:
- If Overdue Aircraft Is Still Missing
Upon Request:
- Any Incident That Required Immediate Notification
Airspeed
KIAS:
- Indicated Airspeed
- Airspeed Indicated On The Airspeed Indicator

CAS:
- Calibrated Airspeed
- KIAS Corrected For Installation Error

TAS:
- True Airspeed
- CAS Corrected For Temperature & Pressure

GS:
- Ground Speed
- TAS Corrected For Wind Velocity & Direction
Altimetry
Indicated Altitude:
- Altitude Indicated On The Altimeter

Calibrated Altitude:
- Altitude Corrected For Installation Error

True Altitude (MSL):
- Actual Altitude Above The Mean Sea Level

Absolute Altitude (AGL):
- Actual Altitude Above The Ground (AGL - Above Ground Level)

Pressure Altitude:
- Vertical Distance Above The Standard Datum Plane
Note:
The Standard Datum Plane Is The Theoretical Plane Where Atmospheric Pressure Is Equal To 29.92

Density Altitude:
- Pressure Altitude Combined With Outside Air Temperature
- Important Factor For Determining Aircraft Performance
- Theoretical Value
Performance Limitations
Density Altitude:
- Upto 14000' DA

Vne:
- Upto 3000' DA - 102KIAS
- 3000+' DA - See Placards

CG:
- See Chart
- POH
- Limitations
- Page 2-5

IGE:
- See Chart
- POH
- Performance
- Page 5-6

OGE:
- See Chart
- POH
- Performance
- Page 5-10

Max Wind:
- Unless PIC Has Logged 200 Hours In A Helicopter, 50 Of Which Must Be In A Rob. R22
- Surface Winds <25 KTS
- Surface Wind Gust Spread <15 KTS
- Continued Flight In Moderate, Severe Or Extreme Turbulence
Note:
Moderate Turbulence Causes
- Changes In Altitude Or Attitude
- Variations In Indicated Airspeed
- Occupants To Feel Definite Strains Against Seat Belts
Note:
Upon Inadvertently Encountering Moderate To Extreme Turbulence
- Adjust Forward Airspeed To B/T 60 KIAS & .7Vne, But No Lower Than 57 KIAS
Loss Of Tailrotor Effectiveness (LTE)
4 Types:
1. Mainrotor Disc Interference
2. Weathercock Instability
3. Tailrotor Vortex Ring State
4. LTE @ Altitude
Low Rotor RPM
- So Much Drag The Engine Can Not Keep Up
- All Lift Lost
- No Aerodynamic Way To Recover
- Blades Becomes "Flimsy" And "Tulip"
Electrical System
- 12 Volt Battery
- 60 Amp, 14 Volt Alternator
- Circuit Breaker Type Fuses
Engine
- Lycoming O-360
- 361 Cubic Inches
- 4 Horizontally Opposed Cylinders
- Normally Aspirated
- Carburated
- Air Cooled
Drive System
- Output Shaft To Lower Sheeve
- Lower Sheeve To Double VeeBelts
- Double VeeBelts To Upper Sheeve
- Double VeeBelts Tensioned By Clutch
- Upper Sheeve To Drive Shafts
- 1 Drive Shaft To Mainrotor Gear Box
- 1 Drive Shaft To Tailrotor Gear Box
- Mainrotor Gear Box With Increasing Ratio Gears To Mainrotor
- Tailrotor Gear Box With Decreasing Ratio To Tailrotor
Fuel
- 2 Fuel Tanks (Main & Aux)
- Located On Each Side Of The Mainrotor Mast
- Gravity-Feed

Main Tank:
Total Fuel Capacity - 19.8 Gallons
Usuable Fuel - 19.2

Aux Tank:
Total Fuel Capacity - 10.9
Usuable Fuel - 10.5

Types:
100LL
100/130
91/96
Enviromental
- Heater
- Cabin Vent
- Manual Door Vents
- Removable Doors
Pitot - Static System
- Pitot Tube Is Located On The Mainrotor Mast Farring
- Static Tube Is Located Inside The Cowling

3 Instuments That Utilize The Pitot/Static System
1. Airspeed Indicator
2. Altimeter
3. Vertical Speed Indicator

Pitot Tube:
- Ram Air Type
- Runs Only To The ASI
- Blocked Pitot Effects Only The The ASI

Static Tube:
- Runs To All 3 Instuments
- Blocked Static Tube Effects All 3 Instuments

Blocked Static Tube:
- Airspeed Indicator Will Change Only With Increase Or Decrease In Altitude
- Altimeter Will Freeze @ The Position When Blockage Occured
- VSI Will Settle To Zero Dispite Altitude Changes

Note:
An Alternate Static Source Can Be Utilized By Breaking The Glass Of The VSI