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32 Cards in this Set

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A. Certification
What are the eligibility requirements for a private pilot (airplane) certificate?
a. Be at least 17 years of age.
b. Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language.
c. Hold at least a current Third Class medical certificate.
d. Received the required ground and flight training endorsements.
e. Meet the applicable aeronautical experience requirements.
f. Passed the required knowledge and practical exams.
14 CFR 61.103
B. Privileges and Limitations
1. What privileges and limitations apply to a private pilot?
No person who holds a private pilot certificate may act as a pilot-in-command of an aircraft that is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire; nor may that person, for compensation or hire, act as pilot-in-command of an aircraft. A private pilot -
a. may act as PIC of an aircraft in connection with any business or employment if it is only incidental to that business or employment and does not carry passengers or property for compensation or hire.
b. may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating expenses of a flight with passengers, provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees.
c. may act as PIC of an aircraft used in a passenger-carrying airlift sponsored by certain charitable organizations.
d. may be reimbursed for aircraft operating expenses that are directly related to search and location operations, provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees, and the operation is sanctioned and under the direction and control of local, state or federal agencies or organizations that conduct search and location operations.
e. may demonstrate an aircraft in flight to a prospective buyer if the private pilot is an aircraft salesman and has at least 200 hours of logged flight time.
f. may act as PIC of an aircraft towing a glider provided they meet the requirements of 14 CFR 61.69.
14 CFR 61.113
B. Privileges and Limitations
2. To act as pilot-in-command, or in any other capacity as a required flight crew member or a civil aircraft, what must a pilot have in his/her possession or readily accessible in the aircraft?
a. A valid pilot certificate
b. A photo identification
c. A current and appropriate medical certificate
14 CFR 61.3
B. Privileges and Limitations
3. What is the definition of a high-performance airplane, and what must you do to act as pilot-in-command of such an airplane?
A high-performance airplane is an airplane with an engine of more and 200 horsepower. To act as PIC of a high-performance airplane you must have:
a. received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized flight instructor in a high-performance airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a high-performance airplane and have been found proficient in the operation and systems of that airplane.

Note: The training and endorsement required by this regulation is not required if the person has logged flight time as PIC of a high-performance airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a high-performance airplane prior to August 4, 1997.
14 CFR 61.31
B. Privileges and Limitations
4. Other than high-performance and complex aircraft, what other types of aircraft (ASEL) require specific training and logbook endorsements from an appropriately rated flight instructor?
High-Altitude Airplane: No person may act as pilot-in-command of a pressurized airplane that has a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude (whichever is lower), above 25,000 feet MSL unless that person has completed the ground and flight training specified and has received a logbook or training record endorsement from an authorized instructor certifying satisfactory completion of the training.

Tail-wheel Airplane: No person may act as a pilot-in-command of a tail-wheel airplane unless that pilot has received flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor who has found the pilot competent to operate a tail-wheel airplane and has made a one-time endorsement so stating in the pilot's logbook. The endorsement is not required if a pilot has logged flight time as pilot-in-command of tail-wheel airplanes prior to April 15, 1991.
14 CFR 61.31
B. Privileges and Limitations
5. What is the definition of a complex airplane, and what must you do to act as pilot-in-command of such an airplane?
A complex airplane is an airplane that has a retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller. You must have:
a. received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized flight instructor in a complex airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a complex airplane and have been found proficient in the operation and systems of that airplane.
b. received a one-time endorsement in your logbook from an authorized instructor who certifies you are proficient to operate a complex airplane.

Note: The training and endorsement required by this regulation is not required if the person has logged flight time as PIC or a complex airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a complex airplane prior to August 4, 1997.
14 CFR 61.31
B. Privileges and Limitations
6. With respect to certification, privileges, and limitations of airmen, define the terms: "Category," "Class," and "Type."
Category - a broad classification of aircraft; i.e. airplane, rotorcraft, glider, etc.

Class - a classification of aircraft within a category having similar operating characteristics; i.e., single-engine land, multi-engine land, etc.

Type - a specific make and basic model of aircraft including modifications that do not change its handling or flight characteristics; i.e., DC-9, B-737, C-150, etc.
14 CFR Part 1
C. Currency Requirements
1. What are the requirements to remain current as a private pilot?
a. Within the preceding 24 months, accomplished a flight review given in an aircraft for which that pilot is rated by an authorized instructor and received a logbook endorsement certifying that the person has satisfactorily completed the review.
b. To carry passengers, a pilot must have made, within the preceding 90 days -
1. three takeoffs and landings as the sole manipulator of flight controls of an aircraft of the same category and class and, if a type rating is required, of the same type.
2. if the aircraft is a tail-wheel airplane, the landings must have been made to a full stop in an airplane with a tail-wheel.
3. if operations are to be conducted during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, with passengers on board, the PIC must have, within the preceding 90 days, made at least three takeoffs and landings to a full stop during that period in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type (if type is required) of aircraft to be used.

Note: Takeoffs and landings required by this regulation may be accomplished in a flight simulator or flight training device that is approved by the Administrator and used in accordance with an approved course conducted by a certified training center.
14 CFR 61.56 61.57
C. Currency Requirements
2. To exercise the privileges of a private pilot certificate, what medical certificate is required, and how long is it valid?
You must possess a third-class medical certificate. If the medical certificate was issued before September 16, 1996, it expires at the end of the 24th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the certificate. If it was issued on or after September 16, 1996, it expires at the end of:
a. The 60th month after the month of the date of the examination shown on the certificate if the person has not reached his or her 40th birthday on or before the date of the examination; or
b. The 24th month after the month of the date of the examination shown on the certificate if the person has reached his or her 40th birthday on or before the date of the examination.
14 CFR 61.23
C. Currency Requirements
3. If a pilot changes his/her permanent mailing address and fails to notify the FAA Airman Certification branch of the new address, how long may the pilot continue to exercise the privileges of his/her pilot certificate?
30 days after the date of the move.
14 CFR 61.60
D. Aircraft Certificates and Documents
1. What documents are required on board an aircraft prior to flight?
A irworthiness Certificate
R egistration Certificate
O wner's manual or operating limitations
W eight and balance data
14 CFR 91.203, 91.9
D. Aircraft Certificates and Documents
2. How can a pilot determine if his/her aircraft is equipped with a Mode C altitude encoding transponder?
By referencing the current weight and balance equipment list for that aircraft, a pilot could positively determine whether or not a Mode C transponder is installed.
D. Aircraft Certificates and Documents
3. When will an aircraft registration certificate expire?
When any of the following occur:
a. The aircraft is registered under the laws of a foreign country.
b. The registration of the aircraft is canceled at the written request of he holder of the certificate.
c. The aircraft is totally destroyed or scrapped.
d. The ownership of the aircraft is transferred.
e. The holder of the certificate loses United States citizenship.
f. Thirty days have elapsed since the death of the holder of the certificate.
FAA-H-8083-25
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
1. Who is responsible for ensuring that an aircraft is maintained in an airworthy condition?
The owner or operator of an aircraft is primarily responsible for maintaining an aircraft in an airworthy condition.
14 CFR 91-403
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
2. After aircraft inspections have been made and defects have been repaired, who is responsible for determining that the aircraft is in an airworthy condition?
The pilot-in-command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight. The pilot-in-command shall discontinue the flight when unairworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur.
14 CFR 91.7
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
3. What records or documents should be checked to determine that the owner or operator of an aircraft has complied with all required inspections and airworthiness directives?
The maintenance records (aircraft and engine logbooks). Each owner or operator of an aircraft shall ensure that maintenance personnel make appropriate entries in the aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been approved for return to service.
14 CFR 91.405
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
4. What regulations apply concerning the operation of an aircraft that has had alterations or repairs which may have substantially affected its operation in flight?
No person may operate or carry passengers in any aircraft that has undergone maintenance, preventative maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration that may have appreciably changed the flight characteristics or substantially affected its operation in flight until an appropriately rated pilot with at least a private pilot certificate
a. flies the aircraft;
b. makes an operational check of the maintenance performed or alteration made; and
c. logs the flight in the aircraft records.
14 CFR 91.407
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
5. What is an Airworthiness Certificate and how long does it remain valid?
An Airworthiness Certificate is issued by the FAA only after the aircraft has been inspected and found to meet the requirements of 14 CFR, and is in a condition for safe operation. Under any circumstances, the aircraft must meet the requirements of the original type certificate. The certificate must be displayed in the aircraft so that it is legible to passengers or crew whenever the aircraft is operated, and it may be transferred with the aircraft except when sold to a foreign purchaser. Standard Airworthiness Certificates remain in effect as long as the aircraft receives required maintenance and is properly registered in the United States.
FAA-H-8083-25
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
6. Can a pilot conduct operations in an aircraft with known inoperative equipment?
Yes, under specific conditions. 14 CFR 91 describes acceptable methods for the operation of an aircraft with certain inoperative instruments and equipment that are not essential for safe flight - the are:
a. Operation of aircraft with a Minimum Equipment List (MEL), as authorized by 14 CFR 91.213(a)
b. Operation of aircraft without a MEL under 14 CFR 91.213(d)
AC 91-67, 14 CFR 91.213
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
7. What are Minimum Equipment Lists?
The Minimum Equipment List (MEL) is a precise listing of instruments, equipment and procedures that allows an aircraft to be operated under specific conditions with inoperative equipment. The MEL is the specific inoperative equipment document for a particular make and model aircraft by serial and registration numbers; e.g. BE-200, N12345. The FAA-approved MEL includes only those items of equipment that the FAA deems may be inoperative and still maintain an acceptable level of safety with appropriate conditions and limitations.
AC 91-67
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
8. What limitations apply to aircraft operations conducted using the deferral provision of 14 CFR 91-213(d)?
When inoperative equipment is found during pre-flight or prior to departure, the decision should be to cancel the flight, obtain maintenance prior to flight, or to defer the item or equipment. Maintenance deferrals are not used for in-flight discrepancies. The manufacturer's AFM/POH procedures are to be used in those situations.
FAA-H-8083-25
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
9. What limitations apply to aircraft operations being conducted using MELs?
The use of a MEL for a small, non-turbine-powered airplane operated under Part 91 allows for the deferral of inoperative items or equipment. The FAA considers an approved MEL to be a supplemental type certificate (STC) issued to an aircraft by serial number and registration number. Once an operator requests an MEL, and a Letter of Authorization (LOA) is issued by the FAA, the the MEL becomes mandatory for that airplane. All maintenance deferrals must be done in accordance with the MEL and the operator-generated procedures document.
FAA-H-8083-25
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
10. What are the procedures to follow when using 14 CFR 91.213(d) for deferral of inoperative equipment?
The pilot determines whether the inoperative equipment is required by type design, the regulations, or ADs. If the inoperative item is not required, and the airplane can be safely operated without it, the deferral may be made. Then the pilot removes or deactivates the inoperative item, and places an INOPERATIVE placard near the appropriate switch, control, or indicator.

If deactivation or removal involves maintenance (removal always will), it must be accomplished by certificated maintenance personnel. For example, if the position lights (installed equipment) were discovered to be inoperative prior to a daytime flight, the pilot would follow the requirements of section 91.213(d).
FAA-H-8083-25
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
11. What are the required maintenance inspections for aircraft?
a. Annual Inspection - within the preceding 12 calendar months
b. 100-hour Inspection - if carrying any person (other that a crew member) for hire or giving flight instruction for hire.

If an aircraft is operated for hire it must have 100-hour inspection as well as an annual inspection when due. If not operated for hire, it must have an annual inspection only.
14 CFR 91.409
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
12. If an aircraft has been on a schedule of inspection every 100 hours, under what condition may it continue to operate beyond the 100 hours without a new inspection?
The 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to a place where the inspection can be done. The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service.
14 CFR 91.409
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
13. What is the difference between an annual inspection and a 100-hour inspection?
No differences exist when computing the content of an annual inspection with that of a 100-hour inspection. The difference is who is allowed to perform these inspections. Only an A&P mechanic with an Inspection Authorization can perform an annual inspection. 100-hour inspections may be performed by an A&P mechanic (no IA required).
14 CFR Part 43
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
14. Be capable of locating the required maintenance and equipment inspections for your aircraft in the aircraft and engine logbooks. What should these include?
a. Annual inspection/100-hour inspection
b. ELT inspection (12 calendar months)
c. ELT battery expiration date
d. Transponder certification (24 calendar months)
e. Compliance with applicable ADs

Note: If operating under IFR, the pitot-static pressure system, altimeter, and automatic pressure altitude reporting system must also have been tested and inspected in the preceding 24 calendar months.
14 CFR 91.207, 91.215, 91.405, and 91.413
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
15. What are some of the responsibilities an aircraft owner has pertaining to aircraft documents, maintenance and inspections of their aircraft?
Aircraft owners must:
a. Have a current Airworthiness Certificate and Aircraft Registration in the aircraft.
b. Maintain the aircraft in an airworthy condition including compliance with all Airworthiness Directives.
c. Ensure maintenance is properly recorded.
d. Keep abreast of current regulations concerning the operation of that aircraft.
e. Notify the FAA Civil Aviation Registry immediately of any change of permanent mailing address, or of the sale or export of the aircraft, or of the loss of citizenship.
FAA-H-8083-25
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
16. Define "preventive maintenance."
"Preventive maintenance" means simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations. Certificated pilots, excluding student pilots, sport pilots, and recreational pilots, may perform preventive maintenance on any aircraft that is owned or operated by them provided that aircraft is not used in air carrier services. 14 CFR Part 43 identifies typical preventive maintenance operations which include such basic items as oil changes, wheel bearing lubrication, hydraulic fluid (brakes, landing gear systems) refills,
FAA-H-8083-25
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
17. What are "Special Flight Permits," and when are they necessary?
A Special Flight Permit may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet applicable airworthiness requirements but is capable of safe flight. These permits are typically issued for the following purposes:
a. Flying an aircraft to a base where repairs, alterations or maintenance are to be performed, or to a point of storage.
b. Delivering or exporting an aircraft.
c. Production flight testing new-production aircraft.
d. Evacuating aircraft from areas of impending danger.
e. Conducting customer demonstration flights in new-production aircraft that have satisfactorily completed production flight tests.
14 CFR 91.213, 21,197
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
18. How are "Special Flight Permits" obtained?
If a special flight permit is needed, assistance and the necessary forms may be obtained from the local FSDO or Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR).
FAA-H-8083-25
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
19. What are "Airworthiness Directives" (ADs)?
An AD is the medium the FAA uses to notify aircraft owners and other potentially interested persons of unsafe conditions that may exist because of design defects, maintenance, or other causes, and to specify the conditions under which the product may continue to be operated. ADs are regulatory in nature, and compliance is mandatory. It is the aircraft owner's responsibility to ensure compliance with all pertinent ADs.
FAA-H-8083-25