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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are theories?
organizational framework
Science and Scholarship aren't us believing rather...?
they are showing and convincing
Science is a discipline of persuading. What does this mean?
Science is rhetoric.
What is the purpose of Science and Scholarship?
trying to discover things we didn't know before
Who discovered black boxes?
Bruno Latour
What is causation?
the casual influence of one factor or variable on another
What is correlation?
The regular relationship between two variables
What are the 4 methods to forestall objections?
statistical surveys, field work, existing data, and experiments
What is a sample in a statistical survey?
group of people who are representive of a large group that we can't study
What is a black box?
when statements are accepted as true and people only learn the black boxes and not the background to them
What is the conflict theory?
use society as a set of groups and organizaitons as fighting for the best potentials
What is functionalism?
emphazies agreement on certain fundamentals as basic and providing a service
What is symbolic interaction?
viewing society as stable set of arrangements
What is another name for the micro order?
Interpersonal level
What are the 3 levels of public order?
interpersonal level, group level, social order
What happens at the Interpersonal level?
dealing with people one at a time or in very small groups
What is the group level?
dealing with groups of people becomes complex
What is social order?
viewing a whole society with smaller groups in it
What is status?
postion in society
What are the two types of status?
ideal and achieved and ascribed roles, and
What is ideal status?
percieved and preformed roles
What is achieved role?
going to work or school
What is ascribed role?
something you can't help ; gender, race, age, occupation
What did Goffman use to define principles of role performances?
concepts borrowed from theatre to understand everyday life
What is ideal role?
may or may not fit with with what people are doing
What is perceived role?
is what you get
What is the signifcance of Goffman studying principles of role performance?
for conception of society and conception of self
What is the conception of society?
emotional labor
What is conception of self?
not embarrased because of yourself but rather a social event
What is role distance?
people add things to their roles to personalize them which gains independence
What is a team?
any group of people who are facing the public
What is front stage?
what people see, must have emotiional labor and be happy to audiance and customers
What is back stage?
What goes on behind the scenes and what people don't see
What are the origins of culture?
effors to deal with the problems of human varirty and answers to racial theories
How much conflict is there between culture and individuals?
Freud - a lot
Mead - people are like silly putty and can be shaped easily
What is culture?
consits of symbols and bodies of techniques
How is culture transimitted?
over time through generations and over space through diffusion
To what extent are people shaped by culure?
a lot
HOw does culture change?
independent of people and changes by itself
What was Mead's central question?
What are the orginis of self - consciousness
What was Mead's answer to his central question?
We must take on attitudes or others and have an organizaiton of self
How is the origin of self defined?
The I and the Me
What is the I?
active and knowing what people think
What is the ME?
passive part of self
What are the differences between Mead and Freud?
Freud - desires of people
Mead - thinking
Who expressed social relations through language?
Basil Bernstien
What is socialingustics?
the study of language
What are the two codes that Basil Berkstein create?
restricted and eleborated
What is the restricted code?
restrictions in the choice of language
What is the eleborated code?
emphasizes mental states and unique positions of individuals instead of their states
What type of family is releated to restricted code and what its defintion?
Positional family - decisions are made by rank
What type of family is releated to eleborated code and what is its defintion?
Person center families - childern tend to socialize their parents and reserve
Who discoreved the elements of morality?
Durkheim
What is Durkheim's theory of punishment?
punishments that are excessive are the same as no punishment, they become arbitary
What are the two types of morality that Piaget found?
Morality of constaint and morality of cooperation
What is morality of constraint?
bsaed on 1 sides respect of authority
What is morality of cooperation?
based on mutual respect
What type of morality delt with retributive justice and what is it?
Constraint - punishment
What type of morality delt with distributive justice and what is it?
cooperation - people when something goes wronf they see that people get their own share of punishment
What is deviance?
byproduct of social order
What is labeling?
people become labeled because of their deviance
What are examples of deviance?
crime and mental illness
What is crime a form of deviance?
once you committed a crime the title stays with you the rest of your life
What is white collar crime?
crime committed by people who are upper - middle class and have the knowledge and accessability to commit it