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### 20 Cards in this Set

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• Back
 3 Types of Measures 1) Observational 2) Physiological 3) Self-Report OPS-R 3 Types of Self-Report Measures 1) Cognitive 2) Affective 3) Behavioral CAB Converging Operations (Triangulation) Using multiple types of measures to investigate aspects of the same phenomenon 4 Scales of Measurement 1) Nominal 2) Ordinal 3) Interval 4) Ratio NOIR Nominal Numbers that are assigned to behavior are essentially labels Ordinal Rnak ordering of a set of behaviors or characteristics ex) Audience response at talent show Interval Equal differences b/t the numbers reflect equal differences b/t participants but, no Zero Point ex) IQ test Ratio involves real numbers and has a true Zero Point so that scores can be compared mathematically Observed Score True score + Measurement Error True Score what the participant would have obtained if our measure were perfect Measurement Error result of factors that distort the score -every measure has error -m.e. undermines reliability of measure 5 Sources of Measurement Error 1) Transient States 2) Stable Attributes 3) Situational Factors 4) Characteristics of the Measure 5) Mistakes Reliability True-Score/Total Variance Measure is reliable at .70 3 Basic methods of estimating the reliability of a measure 1) Test-Retest Reliability 2) Interitem Reliability 3) Interrater Reliability Interitem Reliability Assess the degree of consistency among items on a scale tests the degree to which items are tapping into the same construct Increasing Reliability of Measures (4 things) 1) Standardize Administration 2) Clarify instructions & Questions 3) Train observers 4) Minimize errors in data coding Validity the extent to which a technique actually measures what it is intended to measure 3 basic ways Validity is assessed 1) Face Validity 2) COnstruct Validity 3) Criterion-related Validity Construct Validity Determining whether a particular measure relates as it should to other measures convergent vs. discriminant Criterion-Related Validity The extent to which a measure allows us to distinguish among participants on the basis of a particular *behavior criterion* ex. SAT Concurrent vs. Predictive