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61 Cards in this Set

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Nutrition
the science of foods and the nutrients and other substances they contain, and of their actions, within the body (including ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion).
Nutrition
The social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of food and eating.
Foods
products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues
Diet
the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks
Functional Foods
foods that contain physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions; sometimes called designer foods or nutraceuticals
Phytochemicals
nonnutrient compounds found in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body
Energy
the capacity to do work
What type of energy is in food?
Chemical energy
How is chemical energy used in the body?
the body converts chemical energy to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy
Nutrients
Chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues. They may also reduce the risk of some diseases.
Inorganic
not containing carbon or pertaining to living things
Organic
In chemistry, a substance or molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds. This definition excludes coal, diamonds, and few carbon-containing compounds that contain only a single carbon and no hydrogen.
Essential Nutrients
nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs. Also known as Indispensable nutrients.
How many nutrients are currently known to be essential to human beings?
about 40
Indispensable nutrients
nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs. Also known as essential nutrients.
Energy-yielding nutrients
the nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
calories
units by which energy is measured
kilocalories
unit by which food energy is measured
Kilocalories
equals the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celcius.
What is the popular term for a kilocalorie?
calorie
Energy density
a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food (kcalories per gram)
Vitamins
organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health
Minerals
inorganic elements; some are essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health
Genome
the full complement of genetic material (DNA) in the chromosomes of a cell
Genomics
The study of genomes
How many chromosomes make up the human genome?
46
Nutritional Genomics
the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the interactions between diet and disease
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
A set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US and Canada that are used for planning and assessing diets.
What 4 things make up the DRI?
1) Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
2) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
3) Adequate Intakes (AI)
4) Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
Requirement
the lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
The average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age and gender group.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
The average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people; a goal for a dietary intake by individuals.
Deficient
The amount of a nutrient below which almost all healthy people can be expected, over time, to experience deficiency symptoms.
Adequate Intake (AI)
the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion; a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects.
Estimated Energy Requirment (EER)
the average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases
Malnutrition
any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients
Undernutrition
Deficient energy or nutrients
Overnutrition
excess energy or nutrients
Nutrient Assessment
a comprehensive analysis of a person's nutrition status that uses health, socioeconomic, drug, and diet histories; anthropometric measurements; physical examinations; and laboratory tests
Anthropometric
relating to measurement of the physical characteristics of the body, such as height and weight
Overt
out in the open and easy to observe
Primary Deficiency
A nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient
Secondary Deficiency
A nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient
Subclinical Deficiency
A deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared
Covert
hidden, as if under covers
Healthy People
A national public health initiative under jurisdiction of the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that identifies the most significant preventable threats to health and focuses efforts toward eliminating them
Chronic Disease
Diseases characterized by a slow progression and long duration. Examples include heart disease, cancer, and diabetes
Risk Factor
A condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease bu not proved to be causal.
Name 6 leading risk factors for chronic disease.
1) Obesity
2) Cigarette smoking
3) High blood pressure
4) High blood cholesterol
5) Physical inactivity
6) Diet high in saturated fats and low in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains
Name some reasons why people select the foods they do.
1) personal preference, 2) habit, 3) ethnic heritage or tradition, 4) social interactions, 5) availability, convenience and economy, 6) positive and negative associations, 7) emotional comfort, 8) values, 9) body weight and image, 10) nutrition and health benefit
This class of nutrients are made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen.
Protein
These classes of nutrients are made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Vitamins
How many kCals are there in a gram of Carbohydrate?
4 kcal
How many kCals are there in a gram of Fat?
9 kcal
How many kCals are there in a gram of Protein?
4 kcal
How many kCals are there in a gram of alcohol?
7 kcal
Name two major groups of research studies that are common in nutritional research.
Epidemiological studies and Experimental studies (lab based or human clinical trials)
What 4 things are included in a nutritional assessment of an individual?
1) historical information
2) anthropometric data
3) physical examination
4) laboratory tests
Name several red flags of nutrition quackery.
1) Satisfaction guaranteed, 2) quick and easy fixes, 3) natural, 4) one product does it all, 5) time tested, 6) paranoid accusations, 7) personal testimonials, 8) meaningless medical jargon