Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Freud, Adler, & others
interventions were individually-driven, problems were rooted in families, focus was on, "What is the underlying issue?"
Harry Stack Sullivan
1920s, bridge between psychoanalysis and family therapy -- "grandfather" -- focus on interpersonal/between people, asked "what makes this make sense"
Von Bertallanfy
1940s, scientist who coined general systems theory -- a system is maintained by the interrelationship of parts, when one piece is altered, everything else is altered
Norbert Weiner
late 1940s, MIT mathematician who formed cybernetics -- made system of parts (both human/nonhuman) that relied on internal feedback to aid more accurate steering and aiming of guns on WWII ships
important figure in development of FT; psychoanalytically trained psychiatrist studying schizophrenia @ NIMH, founder of family systems therapy, shifted focus in research on mother/child symbiotic relationship, pioneered influential concepts such as differentiation
important figure in development of FT; strong willed psychiatrist known for innovative techniques, associated with experiential model, focus on helping people feel more deeply and personally in order to help them get unstuck from dead patterns of bx
Bateson project
Gregory Bateson headed group that received grant to study paradox of communication; important group in influence of FT; would become basis for MRI model
Haley, Weakland, Fry, Jackson
important members of Bateson project; noticed schizophrenic families communicated differently (double-bind theory)
Theodore Lidz
important figure in development of family therapy; not associated with particular model; studied role of fathers in families of schizophrenics
Lyman Wynne
important figure in development of FT; not associated with particular model, studied with Bowen at NIMH, focusing on communicative deviance
important figure in development of FT; not associated with particular model, founder of contextual therapy, focus was on invisible loyalities/family ledger that are guided by entitlement and indebtedness
Don Jackson
important figure in development of FT; established MRI; part of the Bateson group at Palo Alto, trained by Sullivan, influenced by Bateson and Erickson too, focus on family homeostasis, communication theory, double bind, and redundant behaviors, sudden death, founder (w/ Ackerman) of Family Process
Individuals through MRI
Satir, Watzlawick, Beavin, Riskin, Fisch (became director), Bodin, Haley, Weakland, Fry
Milton Erickson
important influence on development of FT; trained some MRI individuals, known for his use of hypnosis or "communicative trance", and his pragmatic, problem solving approach that had heavy influence on strategic/brief models
Nathan Ackerman
child psychiatrist trained in the psychoanalytic tradition, associated with strategic therapy, thought of human bx in terms of intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts, known for maintaining focus on individual in light of emphasis of family context, founder (w/ Jackson) of Family Process
Jay Haley
part of Bateson project, had brief stint with MRI, joined Minuchin at Philidelphia Child Guidance Clinic, focus on structural changes, positive feeback loops, as well as function of symptom for system; heavily influenced by Erickson
de Shazer
worked earlier in Palo Alto, heavily influenced by and trained in MRI approach, developed solution-focused therapy
family therapist who pioneered structural model, which became dominant model of 70s; focus on problematic bx in context of structures that lack boundaries in authority, therapists should "join" structure to reinforce proper boundaries; main work with poor kids/families at Philideplphia Child Guidance Clinic
family therapist who went through MRI, associated with experiential model, wrote Cojoint Family Therapy, largely focused on individual and relationship b/w bx and rigid family rolels, known for tenderness and authenticity
John Bell
psychologist who began treating families in early 1950s, "may have been first familiy therapist", used group therapy techniques in forming "Family group therapy" after rumor that Bowlby was experimenting with group therapy with families (found to not be true)
Development of models
communication studies--->MRI/strategic (50s-60s)--->experiential (60s)--->Milan(70s)--->structural--->SF--->post-modern (80s-90s)-->feminist critique-->narrative (90s)-->EFT
Communications theory
Don Jackson; 1)one cannot not communicate, 2)communication has a report and command level, 3) communication must be understood in context, 4) all communicative systems characterized by rules, 5) in which homeostasis is maintained and system preserved, 6) communicative relationships are symmetrical or complimentary, 7)everyone punctuates reality in dfferent ways, 8)problems are maintained w/ recursive feedback loops/interactional system
how a system moves or doesn't move, the study of control processes in systems, the natural action a system takes in light of a changing environment, esp. + and - feedback loops
(von Bertallanfy)the process by which a system changes its structure to adapt to new contexts, natural mechanism to seek change
the process by which families/systems resist change, maintain status quo, maintained by rules and feedback, problematic when prevents flexibility
family/systemic rules
rigid, unwritten, and unspoken norms of bx that preserve homeostasis; goal of FT is to bx in way where rules must change and expand repetoire of bx outside the rules
1st order cybernetics
ability for therapist to observe interaction and make changes in system from the outside or separate from it w/o influence; more content oriented
2nd order cybernetics
therapist is part of the system; more process oriented
1st order change
change in bx w/o rules/system change
2nd order change
change in bx w/ rules/system change, often involving epiphany, can only happen spontaneously, and when it occurs, there is no relapse
symptom serves purpose in system, typically preservation
double bind
two messages on different levels that are conflicting that leaves individual in trance-like stupor--led to seeking out Erickson and his hypnosis work
ability of complex systems to reach a given final goal in a variety of different ways. The end result is same despite where change begins in system
funnel and infinity
a metaphor for systemic thinking, there are inumerable influential factors beginning from D.O.B. that contribute to what you see in front of you in your office (abuse, parent's marriage, social interaction, abuse, rejection, etc, etc, etc….), you only see drips of their system
linear vs circular thinking
a causes b vs causes cannot be isolated, multiple factors are at play within system, and they reciprocally determine and impact bx
cause vs effect, effect, effect
systems theory concerned more w/ interrupting cycle of effect, effect, effect rather than search for cause-effect.
process vs content
distinction b/w how members of a family relate (command, meta-message, analog) and what they say (report, message, digital), "all bx is an effort to define a relationship b/w 2 people" --> "bx in a way so that the rules must change"
style differences in FT vs previous models
1) somewhat away from expert/couch laying, labeling, diagnosis model
symmetrical vs complimentary relationship
two forms of communicative relationships; when one part moves the other part moves with it vs when one part moves the other accomodates; neither is better than other
positive feedback vs negative feedback
bx that promotes or leads to more change vs bx that discourages, resists or lessens change, bring back homeostasis to system
feedback loops
the return of a portion of the output of a system
interactional systems
metaphor for systemic thinking; collection of interlocking relationships that operate on recursive feedback--I am with you as you are with me, as I am with you…why 1+1=3, interactions become entity in itself
baby mobile
metaphor for systemic thinking, pull 1 part it affects all
communication about communication, communicates context of comunication and how it should be interpreted/qualified. EX: a dog "smiles" and then begins to aggresively play w/ another dog; the metacommunication lets everyone know that this is play and not fight
Why might it be that when a client gets between, someone else in the family gets worse?
b/c family is a system and change in one person changes the system. The bx of the client, whether positive or negative, plays an important role in the function of the overall system. The symptoms that were serving the function in preserving the rest of the system as is.
No man is an island in himself
individuals cannot not interact with others--it is part of the human condition. This means that all bx, including disorders and private ailments, should really be understood within the system in which it is of a part because the indivdiual alone cannot be the sole reason for the disorder
FT vs individual therapy
attest to power of external forces/system on individual-->treat family and focus on system vs belief that dominant forces that influence individual and bx are internal-->treat person in isolation and focus on internal dynamics
Why would Freud be against FT?
mainly b/c of importance of transference in PCT/client relationship; family-as-remembered is important, while seeing family would only exacerbate conflict
Factors that influence ability to leave home?
mainly marital instability or the relationshp between client and other members in the system. How much stability in the system relies on this one individual?
Time frame for FT development
what makes this make sense vs what is the underlying cause
recognizes that human bx is complex and limited by system and interactions therein, expands options for the treatment of human bx, where persons can "continue to exert synchronous change on each other" whereas other hyperfocuses on indivdiual as "problem" and removes context from which it is a part
Kurt Lewin
studied conflict and group tensions and turned focus to "hear and now" rather than on the history/past emphasizing process over content, which FT later utilized a similar emphasis on process over content, and the here and now
general systems theory
(Von Bertallanfy) characterizes living systems as whole entities that maintain themselves through continuous input and output from the environment
black box concept
focus on the input-ouput of communication rather than on intrapersonal dynamics; thought as a more useuful way to understand what goes on b/w people; related to circular causuality and reciprocity where focus is on interactions b/w people and bx is chain of input-output or stimulus-response
quid-pro-quo, "this for that", bx is in continuous change
what is said is never heard, everyone has a filter that makes them vary in how they view, define, and explain reality and communication; bx and communication is deduced and experienced relative to perspective (epistemology) of observer; has important implications for how they view the origination and maintenance of a problem
influence of group theory on FT
brought attention away from the individual and to group as a whole; the group was seen as having own identity and characteristics; therapist focused on interactions and dynamics of group as a way to understand people specifically and generally. Concepts and practices from group theory were some of the first used in family therapy b/c both focus on treatment in a setting of multiple individuals
influence of child guidance movement on FT
clear in work with children that family had a large influence, new theories were put out about connection b/w role of parents and problematic bx in children, shifted focues from the individual to the family as a way to bring clarity to bx, and interactions seemed to improve with the interpretation of bx
individuality and togetherness
(Bowen) a person's ability to maintain a clear sense of self and indentity and a person's ability to engage in meaningful connection with another; the two counterbalancing forces that drive human relationships; a differentiated person is able to successfully balance
a lifelong process of striving to keep one's being in balance invoing both interpersonal (relational, clearly distinguish self from others) and a intrapsychic (individual, separation of thinking and feelings) processes; believed to be significantly impacted by general level of differentiation in one's family of origin and one's role in the family
when a conflict b/w two people involves a third as a way to stabilize the relationship b/w the original pair, divert the conflict, and lower anxiety; it offers some relief while maintaining the conflict beneath the surface
nuclear family emotional process
defines the flow of emotional process or patterns of emotional functioning in a nuclear family; an undifferentiated parent may cut themselves off from the family of origin and fuse with his or her spouse, creating an instability that may result in reactive emotional distance in marriage, emotional and physical issues, conflict, as well as projection of the problem to children. Influenced by differentiation, cutoff, and system's level of stress
family projection process
the way in which parents transmit their lack of differentiation to their children as a way of stabilizing their relationship and lessen their anxiety; how marital issues affect children
multigenerational process
tendency to repeat impairing patterns of emotional bx in sucessive generations, the transmission of anxiety from generation to generation; a less differentiated person marries someone of like differentiation, increasing anxiety in system, child who is most involved in conflict of family will naturally inhibit own differentiation
emotional cutoff
the way people manage undifferentiation and reduce the dicomfort of being in emotional contact with family of origin; a sign of unresolved issues and lower levels of differentiation; flight from an unresolved emotional attachement; EX: A son avoids talking to his mother as a way to get away from the anxiety and fear he has of her being "controlling"
a diagram of the family system that pictures family members and their relationships to one another; Useful for providing a calm way to indentify patterns, processes, and triangles that may be difficult to see, and expand the presenting problem
I position
taking a personal stance by stating your desire rather than what others are or are not doing in order to limit emotional reactivity
undifferentiated family ego mass
refers to a nuclear family emotional process that is highly fused; the less differentiated a family is, the more the children from this family will "fuse" in their parents' marriage that can result in a)reactive emotional distance, b) physical or emotional dysfunction, c) marital conflict, and/or d) projection of the problem onto children
refers to the role therapists play in that they should be objective and neutral and teach clients on increasing differentiation
displacement stories
stories about other families with similar problems that therapists share with clients in order to help the family gain a clearer understanding of its own process in a less emotionally reactive manner
3 kinds of psychotherapy
management (ex: medical model), problem solving (MRI), and healing/growth
MRI model
a brief strategic model originating out of Palo Alto, CA; typically done in 8-12 meetings, impactful, revolutionary, controversial, misunderstood, way outside the box, arguably the most purely systemic; almost exclusively indirect, requiring great creativity in use of language and faith in isomorphic change
History of MRI model
early 1950s research on communication, 1958 some establishment, early 60s full swing and training. People not accustomed to short term approach. Integrated ideas from Jackson's communications theory, Bateson team's research on cybernetics, and Milton Erickson's work
do as little as possible to induce meaningful change (decided by client); extra can make worse
interactional theory
vital in MRI theory; "I am with you as you are with me as I am with you…"; ahistoric and infiniti
non-normative stance
no time, effort given to what is right or wrong but rather what works; you are not guardian of truth (Romans 14), problems are client-driven
goal of MRI therapy
aimed at interrupting homeostatic patterns and stopping, allowing clients to "free themselves in whatever way they choose"; bx in a way that the rules must change, expand your client's behavioral repetorire to problem situation to allow for adjustment that works. What works is defined by client.
MRI design
designed from years of studying nature and difficulties of change, designed to avoid homeostatic bx features and fear behaviors thought to create resistance by being indirect
2 basics to understand MRI
if something's working leave it alone; if something is not working, quit, and do something diffferent
3 problems w/ change that MRI therapist hopes to avoid/alleviate
change when no change is needed, change at 2nd order when 1st order is needed, change at 1st order when 2nd order is needed
the problem according to MRI purist
redundant failed attempted solutions
reframing and framing
using client's language to find a more useful way to discuss/think of bx or issue in order to promote change
instructing people not to change or to go very slow in order to stop failed attempted solutions
use of indirect, subtle communicative bx to try and induce meaningful change; are heard and thought of more than direct messages and avoid resistance
bellac ploy
saying it to induce it
interactional adjustment and manuverability
working with by working against. EX: Why are you here then?
the one down stance
(MRI) implies equality and invites clients to reduce anxiety and resistance; applied humility by the therapist, taking responsibility for client outcome
no negations
do not argue with your clients, meet them where they are w/o concern what they should be doing -- in faith, if rules change their bx will improve
proposed steps of MRI
intro to tx set up (rapport, # of sessions, differences in approach, 2) inquiry and definition of problem (in clear, behavioral, measurable terms), 3)assess for attempted solutions ("the problem"), 4)goals, 5)intervention, 6)termination
systemic lumping vs. linear segregating
systems theory tends to lump factors together while linear tends to segregate; the problem is vs the problem is something
change on various levels
best predictor of bx
client's current/past bx
effectiveness as a counselor is determined by whether or not you believe this statement
"people are doing the best they can all the time"