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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is anearobic threshold? what happens to anaeorbic threshold with training?
1) anaerobic threshold is an indicator of one's maximum aerobic capability
a)anaerobic threshold increases
what factor must be taken into consideration when prescribing exercise for a spinal cord injured client? How will this factor influence exercise prescription and expected physiological responses to exercise and trainig?
1) the level of the lesion
2)the higher the lesion the more damage there is so there are more problems with thermoregulation, respiratory problems etc.
why is rest important to a training athlete?
the body needs to regenerate and refuel and repair itself in order to become stronger nd more efficient.
after 8 weeks of training a trained middle - distance runner shows a 4% improvement in performance time. Atypical lecturer following the same programme improves by *%. Why is there a discrepancy in training response and what principle may not have been considered during the initial exercise prescription?
the lecturer was a high/early responder, while the trained middle-distance runner was a low/late responder. the principle neglected was the specificity principle.
name a complicating factor during exercise for a MS patient. Is exercise beneficial for an MS patient? why? why not?
1)due to complications in the nervous system the sweating response is adversly affected.
2)due to inability to thermoregulate sufficiently, exercise may be dangerous for the MS sufferer.
name the 3 cardio-respiratory variables that adapt with training. explain why or how these changes occur. for example, blood volume increases to allow improved thermo-regulation.
cardiac output increases - due to an increase in both heart rate and tidal volume
ventilation increases - due to increased tidal volume
what does F.I.T.T mean? describe each component of this principle.
frequency - number of sessions
intensity - rate of exertion
time - duration of session
type - type of training
the high levels of lactic acid results from the involvement of which energy system as exercise intensity and duration increase?
anearobic system
is it beneficial to exercise in a cold environment/ why or why not/
it is not beneficial as the energy cost of exercising in the cold is greater than in the heat due to the shivering response.
name 2 adaptations with heat acclimation and explain how these adaptations function to allow improved performance in the heat.
greater weat volume due to more activated sweat glands increasing the overall surface area available for heat loss.
core temperature is lowered during exercise in the heat.
what is the thermo-regulatory purpose of skin blood flow during exercise
to lower core body temperature
name a sport that relies on relative strength, absolute strength and a combination of relative and absolute strength.
relative strength: running
absolute strength: sumo wrestling
relative and absolute: rugby
which energy system has the greatest power? why? which energy system has the greatest capacity? why?
ATP-PC system because it produces high concentrations of ATP quickly.
2) aerobic system, because it produces low concentrations of ATP for long periods of time without the by-product of lactic acid.
what type of resistance training would you prescribe for: an elederly woman, a rugby forward, a volleball player, a swimmer? why?
a) strength endurance programme because it is suitable for beginners doesn't require a sound strength base.
b) relative strength programmme - as it is for coordination and force
c) plyometrics - for power
d) maximal power programme- for speed and strength.
what is the difference between relative and absolute strength?
relative strength is the ability to move or accelerate your own body mass
absolute strentgh is the ability to move an external load.
which type of contraction generates the greatest force production? why?
eccentric, because the muscle is forcefully lengthened.
name the 4 types of muscular contraaction and an activity that uses each contraction.
1) concentric; bicep curl
2) eccentric; chin ups (downward)
3) isotonic;
4)isometric; pushing against a wall
what problems can occur if an athlete is too flexible or not flexible enough? why?
1) muscle and connective tissue become accustomed to over lengthening and cannot handle increased limitations.
2) decreased range of movement due to tight muscles and connective tissue.
name the 3 main cardio-respiratory adjustments that occur during exercise.
cardiac output increases
ventilation increases
core temperature rises
what is power? what needs to be optimised to maximise power generation.
speed & strength
train the phosphagen system to optimise power.
name the fitness components that are important for carrying out normal daily activities.
coordination and balance
body composition
name 3 reasons why it is important to access body composition regularly.
1) to access training improvements
2)to insure maintainance
3)to determine any improvememts to be made.
what must be considered when prescribing training heart rates for elderly people? why?
the amximum heart rate of elderly people progressively declines with age so the predicted maximal heart rate must take age into consideration.
name the gas essential for aerobic metabolism and the 3 substrates (fuels) used to provide energy for aerobic exercise.
b) carbohydrates
d) fat
a runner is training 6 days a week, running 5 kms per session at an intensity of 60% vo2 max.
a) describe a safe and progressive overload programme for this athlete
b) describe a safe maintenance programme to aintain this runer's present level of fitness.
a) increase intensity to 63% of vo2 max. then 2-3 wks later increase distance to 5.25kms
b)decrease frequency to 2 days per week and decrease duration to 1.6kms
what is the predominant energy system supplying energy during exercise lasting less than 10 seconds? list 2 factors that influence the power and capacity of this energy system.
ATP-PC (phosphagen) system
a) adequete stores of intramuscular PC
b)regeneration of ATP from ADP
what 4 variables are manipulated during interval training?
work/rest ratio
duration of rest periods
what adaptations do elderly people experience when undergoing aerobic training?
elderly people experience the same adaptations as younger people to aerobic training.
what is the predominant energy system supplying energy during exercise lasting between 10 and 60 seconds? list 2 factors that might limit the capacity of this energy system.
anaerobic system
a) build up of pyruvic and lactic acid
b) can only produce several minutes of ATP
should children perform resistance training? why or why not? if yes, describe a suitable resistance training protocol.
there is little or no benefit gained from children doing resistance training as their hormones and nervous systems are not yet fully developed.
name the 2 types of recovery used during interval training and explain how and why these different types of recovery can affect the following exercise period.
active recovery / passive recovery
passive recovery allows for faster recovery
active recovery allows for continuous training without lactate build up
why is there a redistribution of blood flow during exercise?
to allow for more blood flow - thus more oxygen - to working skeletal muscles, while maintaining blood flow to important organs such as the brain and heart.
during high intensity exercise what chemical product results in the rapid onset of fatigue? why?
lactic acid
a) Hydrogen is produced after several minutes of exercise without oxygen and because the hydrogen molecule cannot join with oxygen to produce water the excess hydrogen is stored with pyruvic acid to form lactic acid.
what is the predominant energy system in activities lasting longer than 2 minutes? list 2 sources of energy (energy pathways) for such activity.
aerobic system
a) aerobic glycolytic system
b) aerobic lipolytic system
what 2 factors must be controlled in an individual aiming for weight loss? why?
energy intake and energy outtake
because in order to lose weight there must be more energy being expended than energy consumed.
increases in cardiac output are a result of increases in what 2 cardio-vascular variables? during exercise what mechanisms provide information to regulate cardiac output?
1) heart rate and stroke volume
2) chemo-receptors and mechano-receptors
why is there initially a rapid improvement in strength during the first few weeks of a resistance training programme?
the initial improvements are due to changes in the nervous system - neural adaption.
what cell organelle is primarily responsible for increases in oxidative capacity? what happens to these organelles with aerobic training?
1) mitochondria
a) with aerobic training there is an increase in the number and size of mitochondria.
what is the most immediate response to exercise? what stimulates this response, and is it a limiting factor in endurance performance?
1)increased heart rate
a) feed forward control from chemo-receptors in muscles and blood and mechano-receptors in muscles and joints
name 2 changes in substrate (fuel) use that occur with aerobic training. explain the significance of these changes.
1) there is an increase in glycogen storage and a decrease in glycogen useage - allows for more energy
a)fat is oxidised more efficiently - less glycogen is used and more fat is burned.
explosive training results in increases in what fuel stores for what energy system?
a)ATP-PC system