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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What types of organisms are found in each domain?
Eukarya- Protista (single celled)
Plantae (plants)
Fungi (fungus)
What properties are shared by all living organisms?
1.Cellular Organization- have at least 1 cell
2. Metabolism- All living things use engergy
3. Homestasis- maintain internal conditions
4. Growth and Reproduction
5. Herdity- possess a genetic system that is based on Deoxynbonumcliecacid
What is homeostasis?
When an organism maintains their internal conditions such as water or tempurature. This is important because they can adapt to outside changes.
What is the organization of life?
Cellular level:
Organism level:
tissue-organ-organ system-organism
Population level:
What are the major classes of macromolecules?
Monomer Polymere CellularStructure
Amino acids polypeptides intermediate filament
Nucleic acid:
Nucleotide DNA strand Chromosome
Monosaccharides starch starch grains in chloroplast
fatty acid fat molecule adipose cells with fat droplets
How do scientists think?
Inductive Reasoning is used to create general principles for detailed observation
what is the scientific proccess?
1. Observation
2. Hypothesis
3. prediction
4. testing
5. controls
6. conclusion
what is a hypothesis
it is an educated guess
what are enzymes?
protiens that help speed up chemical reactions
who discovered cells?
Robert Hooke
plasma membrane
encases all cells, has water loving polar( hydrophilic) head and nonpolor hydrophobic tails that form a bi-layer
command center for cells, holds the chromosomes
site where ribosomes are produced, this is located in the nucleus and is site of genes for rRNA sythesis
Nuclear evelope
double *membrane* between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Nuclear pores
are pinches on the nuclear evelope used to allow things to pass in and out of the nucleus
small complexes of RNA and protein that are the sites of protein synthesis these make the Rough ER rough, Ribosomes are studded within the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell, and are created in the Nucleaus
semifluid matrix that contains the nucleus and other organelle
Rough endopasmic reticulum (ER)
internal membranes studded with ribosomes that carry out protein synthesis transports molecules to the golgicomplex (part of the endomembrane system)
Smooth Edopasmic Reticulum (ER)
system of internal membranes that aids in the manufature of carbs and lipids, transports molecules to the golgi complex (part of the endomembrane system)
Golgi Complex
collects, packages, and distributes molecules manufactured in the cells.
this can vary from few to hundreds, imports and then exports and are flattened stacks of membrane scattered in the cytoplasm (part of the endomembrane system)
vesicle that is part of the endomembrane system that derives from the golgi complex. contains enzymes that break down macromolecules. helps digest worn out cells and substances taken into cells. Recycles material
vesicles that are part of the endomembrane system that derived from the ER that will either convert fats to sugars in plants or will detoxify bad cells in humans
the power house (bcuz it provides ATP and is the site of oxidative metabolism), this also contains DNA, It includes a sausage like structure that most likely came from a bacteria. the DNA IS LOCATED IN THE MATRIX
Occurs in plants, is the site of photosythesis, has a double membrane, has DNA
the site of photosythesis
is a stack of thylakoid
A dense network of protien fibers that
1. support the shape of the cell
2. anchors organelles
intermediate filament
a type of cytoskeleton that is a thick rope of intertwined protien, this is the rope like netting in the cells
a type of cytoskeleton that is composed of protien tubulin and is arranged side by side to form tubes that function in intracellular transport and stabilization of cell structure
actin filament
a type of cytoskelotin that are responsible for cell movement and are two strands of fibrous twisted together
flagella and cilla
consist of a 9+2 arrangement of microtubles and anchored in the cell by a basal body. flagella is long and few in number and cilla is plentiful
Anchor and assemble microtubles (is a microtuble triplet) DOES NOT OCCUR IN HIGHER PLANTS OF FUNGI
Cell walls
are in plant cells has primary walls seperated by middle lamella and surronded by the secondary wall
what is ATP?
is the energy currency of the cell
C6H12O6(sugar)+6O2(oxygen)-> 6CO2(Carbon dioxide) + 6H20 (water)+ energy (heat or ATP)
oxidative metabolism
this occurs in the mitchondria, it is the part of the ATP production that uses oxygen
Active transport
these are channels through the plasma membrane that require energy such as the sodium potassium pump and the proton pump
Passive transport
ways to pass through the plasma membrane without energy such as diffusion and osmosis
What is Oxidation and reduction and how are they related?
oxydation is to lose electrons and reduction is to accept them. they are related because this is the process that is gone through to produce ATP
the first step in cellular respiration, it occurs in the cytoplasm with or without oxygen, involves enzyme-catalyzed reactions where 6-carbon glucose is converted into two 3 carbon molecules of pyruvate. TWO ATP is made.
pyruvate oxidation
the second stage, it occurs in the intermembrane space and converts pyruvate into acetyl CoA, gets a CO2 molecule
The krebs Cycle
Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, removes electrons and ends with 2 ATP and 2 Carbons. Acetyl CoA binds with a 4 carbon molecule producing a 6-carbon one. 2 carbons are taken out and the 4 starts from the begining
transport electrons to the electron transport chain
electron transport chain
occuyrs in the inner membrane. electrons are donated to oxygen to form water after electrons are pumped through ATP synthase channels and 32 ATP are made
what other molecules are involved in cellular respiration
nucleic acids, protiens, and lipids and fats
when there is no oxygen organic electron receptors are donated to a pyruvate derivitive to keep glycolosis running. there are 2 types: Lactic acid fermintation (in your muscles)
and ethanolic fermentation (happens in beer)
occurs in somatic (non-reproductive) cells. Includes interphase, mitosis (prophase,metaphase,anaphase,telophase) and cytokinesis
chromosomes replicate and condense
G1 growth stage 1
s phase- DNA replication
G2- growth stage 2 (mitochria and microtubual replication and sythesis)
homologous chromosomes
one of the pair of chromosome came from each parent and they contain information on the same trait
diploid cell
a cell that has two copies of each chromosome
a cell that only has 1 copy of each chromosome
sister chromotids
the identical copy that is joined at the centromere to the homologous chromosome
Nuclear envelope breaks down
chromosomes condense further
spindle apparatus (microtubles) are formed
there are also centrioles at the poles
chromosomes align along the equatorial plane
chromosome cetromeres attach to the microtubles at kinetochore (protein on the chromosome)
sister chromosomes seperate
they are drawn to opposite poles by shortening of the microtubles attached to them
spindle is dismantled
nuclear envelope reforms
chromosomes begin to uncondense
nucleolous reappears
this is the division of the cytoplasm
Animal cells: cleavage furrow (pinching)
Plant cells:
cell plate forms diving the cell in two
the unrestrained cell growth and divison that results in turmors. caused by either mutations in the proto-oncogenes that stimulate cell divison
or tumor-suppressor genes that inhibit cell division
benign vs. Malignant tumors
benign tumors are more harmless, they are encapsulated and noninvasive while malignant tumors are not encapsulated and invasive
when the bad cells leave the tumor and spread throughout the body
the cell divison that occurs in sperm cells. and results in 4 haploid cells
prophase 1
homologous chromosomes pair up (synapsis) and trade segments (cross over), this is the longest and most complex stage
metaphase 1
homologous chromosomes pairs align at the equatorial plane
Anaphase 1
homologous chromosomes seperate and move to opposite poles
telophase 1
Individual chromosomes gather together at the 2 poles
Meiosis 2
there is a brief interphase inwhich no DNA sythesis occurs
it is the same as mitosis except that it does not have haploid set of chromosomes and the sister chromatids are not identical
the disk around the cetroles at the poles of the cell