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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Founder of Structrual Therapy
Salvador Minuchin
Founder of MRI Therapy
Jackson (Weakland, Watslawick, Fisch, Haley)
Founders of Strategic Therapy
Jay Haley, Chloe Mandanes
Founders of Milan Therapy
Boscolo, Cecchin, Palazzoli, Prata
Founders of Experiential Therapy
Carl Whitaker, Virginia Satir
Founders of Solution Focused Therapy
Steve de Shazer, Insoo Kim Berg
Founders of Narrative Therapy
Michael White, David Epston
Founders of Collaborative Conversational
Goolishian, Anderson
Founders of Emotion Focused Couples Therapy
Johnson, Greenburg
Founder of Bowen Family Therapy
Murrary Bowen
Structural view of families
composed of multiples subsystems that function within a whole (holon). Considered as "an organism in itself". Become aware of the structure, boundaries, patterns, rules, and detrimental familial processes.
(Structural) congruence with developmental stages and tasks. individual, spousal, parental, sibling, intergenerational. Problem subsystems create covert coalitions.
associated with the amount of interaction and communication withing a subsystem. rigid boundaries lead to dissengagement, diffuse boundaries lead to enmeshment, clear boundaries define normal relationships.
Goal of Structural Therapy
to alter the dysfunctional structure of the family, restructure, reorganize
Joining and Accommodating
(structural) therapist enters the family system in a hierarchical stance as the leader. The therapist adapts to the worldview of the family.
(Structural) family does the dance infront of the therapist. therapist can see and id the family's structure.
Boundary Making
(structural) regulate the permeability of boundaries sparating holons, involve establishing the structural boundaries in a system or subsystem. (could be like rearranging the chairs)
(structural) altering the hierarchical relationship of the members of a subsystem. temporarily taking sides to change family interaction.
(strategic) the symptom serves a purposeof maintaining the family homeostasis and that they reflect the interdynamics between two or more persons, the symptom is viewed as "adaptive to relationships"
(strategic) natural organization and distribution of power within any organizational system, who tells whom what to do.
determined and maintained by the system's rules, boundaries, and interactional patterns, structural delineation of power within the system
Family Life Cycle
(Strategic)transitional points throughout the family life stages, symptoms appear when there is an interrption in the unfolding of a life cycle in the family.
Goal of Strategic Therapy
interrupt the covert hierarchical structure and covert alliances, allow family to proceed to next stage of family life cycle
Metaphoric Tasks
(strategic) directive in which the family engages in an activity that is not about the problem easier to deal with, circumvents resistance, indierctly facilitates change because of symbolism
Ordeal Therapy
(strategic) alleviate the symptom by making it more trouble to maintain the symtom than to give it up (like having to do taxes if can't sleep)
Pretend Techniques
(strategic) less confrontational, have them pretend to have the symptom and have others respond in session, or pretend to have it at specific times. allows homeostasis to maintain without them really suffering the symptom. shows they have control over the symptom (paradoxical)
Restraining and going slow-Strategic
paradoxical technique, suggest that the symptom may be helpful to the family, hope that the family will rebel against the therapist or go slow once changes have occurred.
(strategic) paradoxical technique, addresses resistance by exaggerating it to hopelessness, the illusion of no alternatives, gets the family to prove to the therapist.
(milan) metaphor to understand problem family interactions, an exchange of concrete bits of behavior among subjects. power is in the rules of the game. Tx aimed at changing the rules of the game.
Meaing versus action
(milan) distinguishes btw to help correct epistemological errors, interpretation of child's behavior is carefully separated from the act itself
Goal of Milan Therapy
interrupt the games and change the rules of the game. maintain healthy systemic functioning to assist in the system's survival
Team approach
(Milan)team of therapists who plan a strategy together, collective mind that is self-correcting, self-reflecting, and self-appraising. one-way mirror.
Circular Questioning
(Milan) family interaction and behavioral exchanges within the family games rather than symtoms, undermine a family's belief system that is based on truths and labeling. clarify confused messages about family relationships
Positive Connotation
(milan) symptomatic behavior is refamed with a positive connotation, like sacrificing himself by suffering the consequences of the symptom for the family.
(milan)therapuetic double-bind to counter the families double-bind paradox, request that the family not change although they came to therpay in order to change
Invariant Prescription
(milan) break up the obscure family game, have the parents go on a secret date, keep a diary, has them aligning together and not with kids
redundant failed attempted solutions, difficulties that cannot be resolved, defined by the client
Interactional view
(MRI) problems persist only if they are maintained by the ongoing behaviors of the client and others with whom the client interacts.
More of the same
(MRI) therapist focuses on reversing the more of the same solutions, these are what people do to keep the problem going
Satir's four primary assumptions
1)people naturally tend toward positive growth 2)all people possess the resources for positive growth 3)every person and every thing or situation impact and are impacted by everyone and everything else 4)therapy is a process, which involves interaction between therapist and client; and, in this relationship, each person is responsible for him/herself
Survival Stances
(Satir) people adopt survival stances to protect their self-worth, is a way to avoid things, enabler, balanced, or unbalanced
Family sculpting
(Satir) like family choreography, silently place each other in a position that symbolizes their role in the family, and can make verbal statements.
roots of Experiential Therapy
Humanistic psychology and Gestalt Therapy
Person of the Therapist
(experiential) therapists encouraged to be fully themselves, authentic with families and their anxieties
Existential Encounter
(experiential) critical change factor, authentic meeting of the therapist and client in the present moment without the customary social pretenses. both the client and the therapist are transformed.
Therapy of the absurd
(experiential) appears to be a craziness to the approach, spontaneity of the therapist, playfulness, mimicking, challenging remarks, etc.
(experiential) each member is allowed their own perceptions and treatment as an individual
Focus of Experiential Therapy
focuses on the growth of the individuals involved not just on solving the problem
Goal of Experiential Therapy
to experience the problem and each other differently encouraging connection with the family and growth
Battle for structure
(experiential) therapist's responsiblity to establish the rules and working atmosphere at the beginning of treatment.
Battle for initiative
(experiential) family taking the initiative for change after structure is established, like triage
Focus of Solution Focus Therpay
here and now, or future possibilities
The Beginner's Mind
(solution focused) in the beginner's mind there are many possibilities, but in the expert's mind there are few. reach solutions consistent with the client's worldview rather than the therapist's preconcieved ideas.
Change is constant
(solution focused) change is viewed as inevitable and constant. situations are always in flux
Solution Focused idea of Language and meaning
language people use shapes their reality and assits in establishing the meaning of situations , relationships, others, and self. meanings applied to situations may limit the range of alternative solutions to a problem.
(solution focused) belief that presenting difficulties will improve. important to make sure that clients have hope.
Goals in Solution Focused Therapy
defined by the client, concrete, attainable, small, specific.
co-construction of solutions
Exceptions frame
(solutions focused)allow the client to search for times when the problem was not apparent, identify strenghts
Scaling Questions
(solution focused)use a 10 point scale, to set goals and measure progress,
Hypothetical Solutions Frame
(Solution focused) anything with if in it, imagine and create bxs when solutions have occured, miracle question is one of these.
Solution Tasks
(solution focused) assignments and homework, purpose or realigning clients focus on strengths and interrupt problem focused patterns.
Reinforcement Principles
(solution focused) you get more of what you reinforce, to make something extinct you ignore it. bx is contingent on reinforcement.
Unique outcomes
(narrative) experiences that would not be predicted by the plot of the problem-saturated narrative, look for these to create alternative narratives,
reality is constructed and given meaning through language, shapes reality and has may political consequences.
(narrative) avoid practices that capitalize on the therapist's power, awareness of the therapist descriptions, diagnoses, etc.
Narrative view of the problem
The problem is the problem, the person is not the problem, only happening to the person.
Deconstructive listening
(narrative) opens space for new meaning and understanding, people must search to fill in the gaps
Deconstructive questions
(narrative)help people unpack their stories or see them from different perspectives
externalization of the problem
(narrative) linguistically separating the problem from the person
Preference and Permission questions
(narrative) ask questions to ensure that a unique outcome or line of discussion is consistent with the client's preferred reality.
Letters and Certificates
(narrative) used to document new narratives, acknowledge accomplishments
langauge generating, meaning generating
(collaborative) through language people give meaning to their experiences and thereby determine what is good or bad, or otherwise in each social situation. this shared meaing, rather than some external factor, forms the core of an social system
Problems-Collaborative Conversational Therapy
problems are not experienced unless someone interprets a situation as problematic
Dialogical Conversation
(collaborative) conversation in which a mutual exchange of ideas and understandings takes place. facilitates meaning-generating.
not knowing and curiosity
(collaborative) therapist recognizes that the clients are the experts in interpreting their own experiences, maintains a stance of genuine curiostiy.
Reflecting Teams
(collaborative) tom andersen, make public the dialogues about clients that therapists previous held behind the one-way mirrors.
(experiential) not new skills in families, but need to be real and free of inhibiting natural health and adaptaion. use skills already have, unadulterated people will turn towards growth and good, left alone people will be fine
Self esteem
(Satir) learned, important to acknowledge and validate individuals uniqueness, heavy affirmation and affection
social construction
the creation of meaning based on interaction and language
Post Modern Therapy
Adaptive, Reactive, valueless stance, no such thing as absolute truth, multiculturalism issues, social construction, cautious in therapy
Relative influencing questions
(narrative) what part of life the problem effects, expand context and offer opprotunities for new narratives
conversational partner
(collaborative) not trying to do anything except be appropriately unusal, supportive, and curious
(collaborative) client is expert, you are not
Access the "not yet said"
(collaborative) clients have never spoken or thought can become open to question and change or find possibilities
Political disconnect
(Feminist) fail to notice the realtionship btw social context and family dysfunction
Mother blamming
(feminist) what about dad?
Patriarchal oppression
(feminist) division of labor, % of abuse done by men, our job to address gender issues
Family violence and power inequality
(feminist) role of protetion and critique on interaction systems and blaming the victim (I am with...)