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114 Cards in this Set

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What do some organisms convert to make chemical energy in food
Sunlight
What part of foods is used for chemical energy
Sugars and other organic molecules
A plant that makes its own food
Autotroph
What does autotroph mean in Greek
Self-feeder
What do plants use the sun's energy to convert into sugars
Water and carbon dioxide
What is the process called when plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Photosynthesis
What does photosynthesis mean in Greek
Photo = light

Synthesis = making something
Are autotrophs "producers" or "consumers"
Producers

Because they produce the organic molecules for food
What are the major "producers" on land and in water
Land = plants

In water = algae and photosynthetic bacteria
Organisms that cannot make their own food are called
Heterotrophs = other eaters
Are humans autotrophs or heterotrops
Heterotrophs
Are heterotrophs producers or consumers
Consumers
What do most producers depend on to make energy
Sunlight
Chemical process that uses oxygen to convert the chemical energy stored in organic molecules to ATP
Cellular respiration
What does ATP stand for
Adenosine TriPhosphate
What do cells in plants and animals use for their main energy supply
ATP
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration use what set of chemicals
Water
Carbon dioxide
Oxygen
Glucose
What chemicals are used for photosynthesis
Water
Carbon dioxide
What do plants use for energy to change water and carbon dioxide
Sunlight
Photosynthesis uses sunlight to change water and carbon dioxide into what
Glucose and oxygen
Oxygen is used during cellular respiration to release what
Oxygen releases the energy stored in Glucose
When energy is released during cellular respiration, what do the cells produce
Chemical energy stored in ATP
What kind of energy is used for photosynthesis
Light energy from the sun
What are the products of photosynthesis
Glucose and oxygen
What are the products of cellular respiration
Carbon dioxide and water
What is the ability to perform work
Energy
Two basic forms of energy
Kinetic and potential
Energy of motion
Kinetic energy

Kinetic is Greek for "motion"
Energy that is stored due to an object's position or arrangement
Potential energy
Does climbing higher increase or decrease your potential energy
Increase
Because you have more force of gravity the higher up you are
What kind of energy is random molecular motion
Thermal energy
Thermal energy that is transferred from a warmer object to a cooler one
Heat
What kind of energy comes from organic compounds in food
Chemical energy
What kinds of organic molecules are high in chemical energy
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
During cellular respiration, what percent of food do cells convert into useful energy
40%
What does the body do with the 60% of energy from food that it doesn't use
60% is converted to thermal energy and lost by body heat, sweating
When you just sit in class, you radiate how much heat
Like a 100 watt lightbulb
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of water by 1 degree Celsius
A calorie
How is the energy content in food usually expressed
Kilocalories

1 kilocalorie (kcal)=1000 cal
Which activity uses the most energy?
Biking, walking, running
Biking
In ATP, what is the adenosine made of
Adenosine =
Adenine + Ribose
In ATP, what is the triphosphate made of
3 phosphate groups in a tail

* Source of energy for most cellular work
An ATP molecule contains "potential energy". How is energy released?
When a phosphate group is pulled away.
ATP changes when a phosphate group is lost during a chemical reaction - what is the molecule then called
ADP

Adenosine DiPhosphate
The cells perform what 3 main kinds of work
Chemical
Mechanical
Transport
What is an example of cellular chemical work
Building large molecules like proteins
What is an example of cellular mechanical work
Moving a muscle by changing protein shapes
What is an example of cellular transport work
Pumping solutes across a membrane
As cells do work, ATP is continuously converted to what
ADP
How is ADP restored to be ATP
Add the third phosphate group
ADP + Phosphate =
ATP
How many ATP molecules are used and recreated per second
10 million
ATP cycle uses energy from food to make what
Energy for working cells
The cells are like automobile engines. What process do the cells use for energy that is like a car's internal combusion process
Cellular respiration
Is cellular respiration anaerobic or aerobic
Aerobic = requires oxygen
During cellular respiration, what 2 gases are released
Oxygen and carbon dioxide
How is cellular respiration like breathing
Cell Resp: Cell takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide

Breathing: Lungs take in oxygen from the air into blood and blows off Carbon dioxide
How does breathing support cellular respiration
Breathing provides the body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
What is a common fuel for cellular respiration
Glucose
In cellular respiration, atoms in glucose and oxygen are rearranged to form
Carbon dioxide and water
The main function of cellular respiration
Make ATP for cellular work
One glucose molecule can produce how many ATP molecules
About 38
Cellular respiration tranfers hydrogen and carbon from glucose to oxygen to form what
Carbon dioxide and water
Heterotrophs are called:
producers
autotrophs
consumers
self-feeders
Consumers
What are the waste products of cellular respiration
Carbon dioxide and water
What is the "net gain" of ATP molecules produced directly by glycolysis
2 ATP

Glycolysis produces 4 ATP, but 2 are used for the process, leaving only 2
Which molecule accepts electrons from the final carrier in the electron transport chain
Oxygen
What are the 3 main stages of cellular respiration
Glycolyis (breakdown glucose)
Krebs cycle
Electron transport and ATP synthesis
How many ATP molecules are used to break down glucose
2
What molecules are the products of glycolysis
2 pyruvic acid
2 NADH
4 ATP
Which molecule is the "carrier" in glycolysis
NAD

Takes on hydrogen to become NADH
What process finishes the breakdown of pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and releases more energy
Krebs cycle
Where are the enzymes used for the Krebs cycle
Dissolved in the fluid matrix in a mitochondrion inner membrane
How many times does the Krebs cycle turn for each glucose molecule
2

Has to turn twice because glycolysis splits glucose into 2 pyruvic acids
Where does glycolysis take place
Outside the mitochondria in the cytoplasm
Pyruvic acid is not part of Kreb cycle. It loses a carbon dioxide molecule and becomes
acetyl CoA
What is the total carbon dioxide and ATP molecules produced by the Kreb cycle
4 carbon dioxide
2 ATP
The final stage of cellular respiration takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. What are the 2 parts of this stage
Electron transport chain and
ATP production by ATP synthase
NADH carrier molecule transfers electrons from sugar to the end of the chain where they are "grabbed" by what molecule
Oxygen
Electron transport chain releases energy to do what
Pump hydrogen ions across the inner membrane
Oxygen combines with electrons and hydrogen ions to form
Water
What part of the mitochondria have protein structures that act like miniature turbine engines
ATP synthases
The ATP synthase generates what
ATP from ADP
The 3 stages of cellular respiration can produce a maximum of how many ATP per glucose molecule
38

Glycolysis = 2 ATP
Krebs cycle = 2 ATP
ATP synthase = 34
Total = 38
What is the function of cellular respiration
Generate ATP for cellular work
Most ATP production occurs after glycolysis and so the body must always have a fresh supply of what
Oxygen
If your body is using ATP faster than you have oxygen, can the cells produce ATP without oxygen
Yes, for a short time
What is the process by which cells make ATP without oxygen
Fermentation
How does the body use the chemical energey stored from food
ATP cycle converts the energy
Why does the ATP "tail" have more potential stored energy
The phosphate groups are negatively charged and each negative group repels the other - causing energy
Cells perform what 3 kinds of work
Chemical work
Mechanical work
Transport work
What is an example of cellular chemcical work
Building a large molecule
What is an example of cellular mechanical work
Moving a muscle protein so the muscle can contract
What is an example of cellular transport work
Pumping solutes across a membrane
Is APT recyclable?
Yes. ATP can be restored from ADP by adding a 3rd phosphate group
How fast does the cell recycle all of its APT
Every minute or
10 million ATP molecules per second
How is cellular respiration related to breathing
Both processes exchange 2 gasses.
Cell or lungs take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide in each process
A process that require oxygen is called
Aerobic

Cellular respiration is aerobic
What is the common fuel for cellular respiration
Glucose
What is the main function of cellular respiration
Generate ATP for cellular work
What part of the cell is the key to cellular respiration
Mitochondria
What between the two layers or envelope around the mitochondria
There is a space between the layers filled with thick fluid called the matrix
Are most enzymes needed for cellular respiration in the inner or outer membrane of the mitochondria
Most enzymes are in the folded inner layer so there are many sites for ATP reactions to occur
A cell's chemical processes
Metabolism
What are the 3 main stages of cellular respiration
Glycolysis
Krebs cycle
Electron transport and ATP synthase
Process of breaking down a glucose molecule is called
Glycolysis
"splitting of sugar"
How many ATP molecules are needed to start glycolysis
2
What are the products of gylcolysis
2 pyruvic acid molecules
2 NADH molecules
4 ATP molecules
Fermentation in yeast produces
Ethyl alcohol
Fermentation in muscle cells produces what waste product
Lactic acid
What microscopic fungus is capable of both cellular respiration and fermentation
Yeast
Fermentation produces ethyl alcohol and releases what
Carbon dioxide
How is the carbon dioxide released during fermentation used?
To make champagne and beer bubbles
To make air bubbles so bread rises
What foods are made by the lactic acid produced by fungi and bacteria during fermentation
Change milk into cheese and yogurt

Soybeans - soy sauce
Cabbage - sauerkraut