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47 Cards in this Set

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First trimester bleeding
Pregnancy: normal IUP, Abortion, Ectopic, GTD, subchorionic hemorrhage
Other: polyp, cancer, vaginal ulcers
Empty Sac
Normal IUP (early)
Blighted ovum
Ectopic pregnancy (pseudosac)
Echogenic central cavity
Normal pregnancy: decidua (early preg, hemorrhage
Ectopic pregnancy (decidua rxn)
Abortion: retained POC
Complex intrauterine mass
Miss AB w placental hydropic degeneration
Fetal demise with retained POC
Molar pregnancy
Degenerated uterine fibroid
Enometrial ca
Elevated MSAFP
Fetal abn: NTD, abdominal wall defects, cystic hygroma, GI obstruction, GI atresia, liver disease, renal disease
Incorrect dates
Multiple gestation
Fetal demise
Low birth weight
Placental abn
Low MSAFP
down syndrome
Trisomy 18
incorrect dates
Predictors or poor outcome, fetal ultrasound
Fetal HR not seen with CRL>5mm
MSD>8mm and no yolk sac
MSD>16mm and no fetal pole
BHCG>1000 and no gest sac
BHCG>3600 and no yolk sac
HR<90 bpm
MSD-CRL<5mm
Irregular gestational sac
Abnormal yolk sac
Absent double decidua sign with MSD> 10mm
Empty sac, large sac
Large subchorionic bleed
<2 mm choriodicdual rxn
Second and third trimester
Diffusely enlarged palcenta size
Hydrops fetalis
Maternal diabetes
Maternal anemia
Congenital infection (TORCH)
Intraplacental hematoma
Second and third trimester
Small placenta
Maternal hypertension
Toxemia
Severe diabetes
IUGR
Abnormal placental echotexture
Partial mole
Hydropic placenta
Hemorrhage or abruption
Common but insignificant findings: venous lakes, fibrin, intervillous thrombosis, septal cysts, infarcts
Umbilical cord abnormalities
Solitary umbilical artery
Tisomies 13,18
Structual anomalies
Umbilical cord abnormalities
Enlargement of umbilical cord
edema
hematoma
Cysts
Mucoid degeneration of Wharton's jelly
Other: knots, varices
Risk factors for preterm delivery
Prior preterm delivery
Multiple gestation
Uterine anomaly
DES exposure
Incompetent cervix
Large fibroid
Polyhydraminos
Abnormal lower uterine segment
Prolapse of cord ( emergency put pt in trendelenberg and call DR)
Incompetent cervix
Placenta previa
Cerclage
Low fibroid
Third trimester bleeding
Placenta previa
Abruptio placentae
Cervical lesions
Idiopathic
Masses during pregnancy
Uterus
fibroids
Focal myometrial contractions
GTD
Hemorrhage
Masses during pregnancy
Adnexal
Corpus luteum cyst
Dermoid
Theca lutein cysts
Other ovarian neoplasms
masses during pregnancy
Other
PID
Other organs: appediceal abscess, diverticulitits
Frequently missed lesions on OB US
NTD
Facial anomalies
Head anomalies in near field
Heart defects
Limb anomalies
Difficulties with imaging in oligolydramnios
Fetal death
No heart beat
Absent movement
Occasional findings: overlapping skull bones (SPaldings sign), gross distortion of fetal anatoly(maceration), soft tissue edema (skin>5mm)
Uncommon findings: thrombus in fetal heart, gas in fetal heart
Cystic CNS structures
Fetal head and spine
Supratentorial: choriod plexus cyst, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, porencephaly, holoporscenphaly, arachnoid cyst, teratoma
Pos fossa: DW complex, arachnoid cyst, mega cisterna magna
Midline cysts: cavum septum pellucidum, dorsal cyst on ACC, Vein of Galen AVM
Hydrocephalus
Noncommunicating: NTD: chiari II, meningocele, meningomyelocele, encephalocele, spina bifida
Communicating: hemmorrhage, infection
Cystic head and/or neck masses
fetal ultrasound
cystic hygroma
Encephaocele
Hemangioma
teratoma
Branchial cleft cyst
thyroglossal duct cyst
Umbilical cord tangled around neck
Fetal Ultrasound
Cystic back masses
NTD
cystic teratoma
Hyperechoic brain mass
Fetal ultrasound
Hemorrhage
Teratoma
Lipoma of corpus callosum
Fetal ultrasound
Incomplete mineralization of skull
OI
Achrondrogenesis, type I
Hypophosatasia
Fetal ultrasound
Skull deformities
Lemon sign: myelomeningocele, encephaocele
Cloverleaf skull: crainiosynostotosis
Thanatophoric dwarfism
Other rare skeletal dysplasias
Fetal ultrasound
Cyphoscoliosis
Isolated finding: hemivertebra, butterfly, vertebra
Complex: VACTERL, limb body wall complex, any skeletal dysplasia
Fetal Chest
Cystic thoracic masses
Diaphragmatic hernia
CCAM
Cysts: bronchogenic, enteric duplication, pericardial
cystic hygroma
Fetal Chest
Solid echogenic masses
Diaphragmatic hernia
CCAM
Pulmonary sequestration
TUmors (teratoma, rhabdomyoma of heart)
Fetal chet
Pleural effusion
Unilateral: CHD, sequestration, CCAM
Bilateral: fetal hydrops, pulmonary lymphangiectasia
Unilateral or bilateral: idiopathic, infection, chromosomal anomalies
Fetal abdomen
Abnormal stomach - absent stomach bubble
Oligohyramnios
Swallowing abn (CNS defect)
Esophageal atresia
CDH
Situs abn
Risk of chromsomal abn (+18)
Fetal abdomen
Abnormal stomach - double bubble
Ladd's bands
Annular pancreas
Duodenal atresia
Stenosis of duodenum
Fetal abdomen
Dilated bowel
Atresia
Stenosis
Volculus
Meconium ileus
Eneteric duplication
Hirschsprungs disease
Pearls: prox obstruct. a/w polyhydramnios, distal obstruc normal amniotic fluid volume
Echogenic bowel content
Normal variant
cystic fibrosis
Down syndrome
IUGR
CMV infection
Abdomen calcification
Bowel related: meconium peritonitis, meconium ileus, atresia, volvulus
Related to other: Renal, liver (TORCH), neuroblastoma, teratoma, fetal gallstones
Hydronephrosis
UPJ obstruction
UVJ obstruction
Duplicated collecting system with obstucted upper pole
Bladder outlet obstruction ( PUV, prune belly syndrome)
Female and males (caudal regression syndrome, magacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis, uretal agenesis, maternal drugs, ectopic ureterocele
Common renal anomalies
Agenesis
Ectopic kidney
Hydronephrois
Cystic disease (ARPCKD,MCDK)
Cystic abdominal structures
Hydroenephrosis, bladder outlet obstruction
Fluid filled dilated bowel
Ascites
Meconium pseudocyst
Fetus in fetu
Cysts (mesentaric systs, urachal cysts, duplication cysts, ovarian cysts, choledochal cyst)
Liver
Hepatic calcification
Infections: TORCH
Hepatic cysts
simple cyst
polycystic disease
Choledochalcyst, carolis disease
Hamartoma
Hepatic masses
Teratoma
Hepatoblastoma
Hemangioma, hemangioendothilioma
Hamartoma
Spenomegaly
Rh immune hydrops
Premature rupture of membranes
TORCH infection
Ascites
Hydrops
Urine ascites
Meconium peritonitis
Infection
Pseudoascites
Anterior wall defects
Midline: omphalocele, pentaogy of cantrell
lateral: gastroschisis, limb body wall complex, amniotic band syndrome
Infraumbilical: bladder or cloacal exstrophy
Anomalies in sacral region
teratoma
meningocele
Caudal regression syndrome (sacral agenesis, sironmelia
Fetal extremities
Fractures:OI, Hypophosphatasia
Polydactyly: familial, +18, +13, meckel gruber syndrome, Jeune's syndrome, short rib polydactyly syndromes