Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Cardiomyopathy
intrinsic myocardial disease
Dilated: biventricular dilatation
Hypertrophic: LVH, often RVH, hypercontractile heart
Restrictive/Obliterative: nifiltration of myocardium reduces LV compliance due to normal sized but rigid wall
Dilated Cardiomyopathy
hypocontractile heart with poor systolic function
LV size up, LV fill pressure up, daistolic compliance down, stroke volume down, ejec frac down, CO down
S4 gallop
causes of dilated cardiomyopathy
primary: genetic (dystrophin, transcription factors for myocyte genes, AD, X linked, mitochondrial)
secondary: drugs and toxins, chemo, pregnancy, metabolic dis (hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, thiamine def
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
LVH, RVH, hypercontractile heart
Diast Compliance down, stroke volume up, ejection fraction up,
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy changes
asymmetrical: basal portion of v septum, can have LV outflow obstruction
symmetrical: no outflow obstruction,
both have disarray of cardiac mycytes with whorling and side to side branching
etiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
beta cardiac myosin HC gene
sarclemmic disorder
failure of force generation results in hypertrophy
outcomes of dilated cardiomyopathy
DOE, palpitations, S4 gallop, CHF, 5 yr 25%,
need transplant
outcomes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
palpitations, chest pain, DOE, syncope, sudden death, carotid upstroke strong, S4 100%,
treat with beta blocker or ca channel inhibitors
Which cardiomyopathy is associate with amyloidosis
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is associated with?
Restrictive cardiomyopathy
infiltration of myocardium reduces LV compliance, rigid wall
LV filling pressure up, diastolic compliance down, SV down, EF down, CO down
Etiology of restrictive cardiomyopathy
amyoloidosis localized (senile associated with old people) or systemic
conge red stain
granulomatous disease, sarcoid,
glycogen storage dis
iron dep
outcomes of restrictve cardiomyopathy
CHF, RHF, cardiomegaly, arrythmieas
10% 10yrs
obliterative cardiomyopathy
subtype of restrictive reduecs v volume and decreases complaince
endomyocardial fibrosis
endocardial fibroelastosis
disappeareance of myocardial cells, fibrafatty replacement and parchment like thinning of myocardium, aneurysm, LBB, sudden death
what does heart look like with myocarditis
inflammation of myocardium, primary infections, secondary systemic inflammatory (autoI or allergy),
heart enlarged with mild ventricular dilatation, microscopic focal myocyte necrsosis, severe inflammation
viral: lymphocytes, edema
bact/parasite: PMN, microabcess
Auto: Eosinophil, no necrosisi
what is most common cause of myocarditis
infectios agents most common, most documented are viral
coxsackie, polio,
coryne, borrelia,

sometimes immunologic, post strep, SLE
why is tamponode lethal?
often lethal complication of hemopericardium, sudden increase in pericardial pressure which itnerferes with function
acute 200-250 cc, usually in association with ruptured myocardial wall or avulsion of a great vessel
diastolic filling ventricular volume and CO DOWN DOWN DOWN
is location of cardiac myxoma clinically important
90% atrial, L:R 4:1, friable, mucoid tumors, benign but may frafment and embolize
clear yellow fluid in pericardium
serious pericardial effusion
srous fluid tinged with blood in pericardium
serosanguineous efffusion
lymphatic fluid in pericardial sac
chylous effusion
pure blood in pericardial sac
most common type of acute pericarditis
pericardial inflammation with effusion can rsult in formation of
adhesion and scarring
primary pericarditis is caused usually by
most paricarditis is secondary and associated with
diseases elsewhere
serous pericarditis causes by
uremia, autoimmune disease, or unkown
rarely clinically significant
bread and butter pericarditis
pus-laden transudate in pericardial space
suppurative pericarditis
hemorrhagic pericarditis caused by
transudative effusion, tumor, TB
caseous necrosis
caused by TB unles proven otherwise
most frequent cause of chronic constrictive pericarditis
TB with caseous necrosis in pericardial sac
obliteration of pericardial sac, causing increased workload
chronic pericarditis of adhesive mediastino/pericarditis type
small quiet hear with reduced output and pule pressure
constrictive pericarditis
dense fibrosis of pericardium, fibrocalcific scar
secondary heart tumors order of occurence
metastatic lung, breast, mal mel, lymphoma/leukemia
most common type of cardiac tumor
myxomas are found where
90% atrial