Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most common form of primary brain cancer.
Most common primary tumor in children
Which population are menigiomas more common?
women and older populations
Meningiomas are commonly seen in this genetic disease.
Menigiomas arise from which cells?
arachnoid cap cells
Histiologic appearance of meningiomas.
whorls of tightly packed cells around calcified acellular material called psammoma bodies
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) usually arise ?
posterior fossa
Medulloblastoma can metastasize to ?
Symptoms of PNETs?
related to mass effect in posterior fossa: ataxia, balance and equilibrium disturbances, cranial nerve palsies
Which pathway may be involved in the development of medulloblastomas?
Sonic Hedgehog
Histological appearance of medulloblastoma.
prominent nuclei w/ little cytoplasm; very uniform sheets of cells
Oligodendrogliomas are often ___ and patients often present with ___.
calcified, seizures
Oligodendrogliomas are more ____ based as opposed to astrocytomas which are ____.
cortically, deeper
Histology of oligodendrogliomas.
"fried egg" appearance, very fine vascular pattern described as a chicken wire appearance
Loss of what parts of chromosomes is associated w/ oligodendrogliomas and portends a favorable prognosis.
1p and 19q
The majority of primary CNS lymphomas fall into the ____ category
large B cell
Treatment of CNS lymphoma:
methotrexate to inhibit dihydrofolate reductase; leukovorin rescues purine synthesis pathway in the rest of the body
Which CNS neoplasm is the most malignant?
Astrocytoma (type IV, GBM)
Histologically the main difference between grade III and grade IV astrocytomas.
necrosis and neovascularizaiton
If this gene is silenced by methylation then a patient will respond better to treatment with temozolomide.
De novo GBM is associated with amplification of ___ and loss of ___.
Intermediate filament found in the cytoplasm of normal astrocytes, reactive astrocytes, and astrocytic tumors.
"Good For Astrocyte Peeking"
Grade II and III frequently have a mutation in ___.
Viable tumor cells around necrosis; seen in GBM.
pseudopallisading necrosis
Better prognosis: Secondary or Primary GBM?
Secondary, but still poor
Mutations in Secondary GBM
p53 & Rb loss
Mutations in Primary GBM
EGFR amplification, p16 deletion, PTEN deletion
Typical histological finding in ependymal tumors
rosettes around blood vessels
Defective oncogene seen in sporadic menigiomas.
merlin from monosomy of chromosome 22
Histological appearance of CNS lymphoma.
Angiocentric pattern, with lymphocytes expanding hte Virchow-Robin space
Most common CNS tumor in children.
Piliocytic Astrocytoma
Acellular eosinophilic material with a glassy appearance often found in pilocytic astrocytomas.
Rosenthal fibers
Tumor cells surround acellular material, seen in medulloblastomas.
Homer-Wright rosettes
Benign tumors found in the sella turcica, compress the pituitary and optic chiasm.
Histology of craniopharyngiomas.
Multiple cysts. Tumor cells show evidence of squamous differentiation w/ keratin formation.
PNS, numerous Schwannomas and subcutaneous neurofibrommas.
NF-1 (Von Recklinhausen's disease)
NF-1 inheritence.
Autosommal dominant
NF-1 is due to ______/
Deletion of gene on chromosome 17 for protein that inactvates Ras.
Difference between neurofibroma and Schwannoma.
Schwannoma only involves some of the nerve rootlets. Neurofibroma is more invasive and whole nerve will be sacrificed.
CNS, bilateral acoustic Schwannomas, increased incidence of astrocytomas and meningiomas.
NF-2 caused by deletion of gene ____.
merlin on chromosome 22.
Visceral schwannomas and neurofibromas and of adrenal gland.
Inheritence of NF-2
Autosommal dominant.
Histology of schwannoma.
Elongated nuclei, stack on top of each other forming Antoni type A or Verocay bodies.
Two genes involved in tuberous sclerosis:
TSC-1 on chromosome 9 (hamartin) and TSC-2 found on chromosome 16 (tuberin)
Inheritence of tuberous sclerosis:
Lesions seen in Tuberous Sclerosis:
glial hamartomas, subpendymal giant cell astrocytomas
Common location of schwannomas.
cerebellar pontine angle involving CN VIII
Common clinical presentation of an astrocytoma.
Two tumors from neural CREST origin.
menigiomas and schwannomas
Where are more pediatric brain tumors distributed compared to adult brain tumors?
posterior fossa
What is the importance of doing a T1 MRI WITH CONTRAST?
contrast can get to areas where the BBB has been breeched (e.g. a tumor!)
Imaging of low grade astrocytoma.
CT- low density, non enhancing
MRI - iso/hypointense on T1, hyperintense on T2
PET - hypometabolic
Imaging of Grade III astrocytoma.
CT - frequent mass effect
MRI - inhomogeneity, T2 diffuse area of edema
PET - hypermetabolic
Imaging of GBM.
CT & MRI - inhomogenous T2 hyperintense, hetergeneously enhancing b/c of necrosis
PET - hypermetabolic
Imaging of meningioma.
CT - iso/hypointense, homogenous, can be calcified
MRI - iso/hypointense on T1, variable on T2
Imaging of metastases.
CT - discrete and noninfiltrative, edema
MRI - low attenuation on T1, little attenuation on T2, often cystic or necrotic center
PET - hypermetabolic
Imaging of medulloblastoma.
CT - iso/hypointense w/ edema, homogenous
MRI - hypointense on T1, variable on T2, 4th ventricular extension
Positive prognostic factors for higher grade astrocytomas.
Grade III better than IV.
Younger patients do better.
Healthier patients do better
Whole brain radiotherapy is appropriate in patients with greater than ____ metastatic lesions.
Gold standard to determine between a tumor and radiation necrosis.
What is used to prevent seizures during interoperative mapping?
iced ringers lactate
Balloon filled with radioactive liquid placed in the brain.
Gamma knife is most often used for which tumors?
metastatic brain tumors
Which cancer has the highest propensity to metastasize to the brain?