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170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a fixed amount
all orbitals filled unpaired first
Hund's rule
atomic size across a group, atomic size down a period
decreases and increases
atoms emit or absorb energy in quanta; energy of light is quantized as photons
quantum theory
bond found in metals
metallic bond
class of hydrocarbons with a triple bond
class of hydrocarbons, contains all single bonds
class of hydrocarbons, contains double bond
constant value that the mass action expression gives you
equilibrium constant- Keq
Define: Calorimetry
The measurement of heat flow.
Define: Enthalpy
Heat flow in chemical reactions occuring at constant pressure when no forms of work are performed other than P-V work.
Define: Enthalpy of Reaction
The enthalpy change of a reaction. (delta)H=H(products)-H(reactants)
Define: Heat Capacity
The amount of energy required to raisre it's temperature 1 degree C.
Define: Molar heat capacity
The heat capacity of one mol of substance.
Define: Specific Heat Capacity
The heat capacity of 1g of substance.
Define: Standard enthalpy
the enthalpy change when all reactants and products are in their standard state.
Define: The enthalpy of formation
The enthalpy change associated wth the formation of a compund from it's constitutional elements.
Define: Thermochemical Equation
An balanced chemical equation the shows the associated enthalpy change.
Define: Thermochemistry
The relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes involving heat.
Define: Thermodynamics
The study of energy and it's transformations.
effective collisions
collisions must be effective in order for there to be a reaction
Electrons are emitted by metal only if light has freq greater than certain min. value, not matter how intense the light
photoelectric effect
electrostatic force between ions of opposite charge
ionic bond
emission of electrons from metal surfaces on which light shines
photoelectric effect
emission of light from electronically excited gas atoms
emission spectra
emission of light from hot objects
black body effect
energy needed to remove an electron
ionization energy
energy of a photon is what number?
planck's constant 6.606e-34 j s
the change in the amount of heat during a reaction
S- easure of disorder/measure of randomness
equal sharing of electrons
nonpolar bond
is reached when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction
factors affecting rate of reaction
1. temp (for every 10 degree incrase,it doubles the rate of reaction
2. concentration-adding particles increases it
3. particle size -larger surface area=faster
4. catalyst- helps orient the molecules5. inhibitor- slows down rate
force holding atom or ions together
chemical bond
Functional Groups:
Carbon-Carbon Single Bond
What are Alkanes?
Ex. 2-methylpentane
free energy- energy available to do work
gibbs free energy equation
deltaG= deltaH - TdeltaS
If (delta)H is negative, what does that indicate?
The reaction was exothermic.
Inorganic Chemistry
Chemistry of compounds not containing carbon.
is cation or anion smaller?
cation because has same charge but less e, so each e pulled closer
is heat of reaction negative or positive in exothermic
it is inherently impossible for us to know simultaneously both the exact momentum of the e and its exact location in space
uncertainty principle
it takes extra energy to remove an electron when?
when subshell filled or half filled
equilibrium constant- how far a reversible reaction goes forward
L values correspond to these subshells
0 s 1 p 2 d 3 f
largest wavelength
Le Chateliers principle
explains how a system at equilibrium responds to relieve any stress on the system
light emitted by excited atoms
line spectra
limitation of the bohr model
can only explain line spectrum for H atom
mass action expression
[C] x [D]
[A] x [B]
more than one lewis structure for fixed nuclear arrangement
negative and positive entropy
increasing- +
decreasing- -
no two e in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
pauli exclusion principle
organization of periodic table determined by
electron configurations
principal quantum number
quantum number, measures orientation
quantum number, measures shape
quantum number, measures size
quantum number, measures spin
a fixed amount
rate determining step
the one that happens the slowest (only as fast as the slowest part)
region of space with size, shape, characteristic energy
rutherford experiment
shot particles at gold foil, discovered the nucleus
said energy can only be released or absorbed by atoms only in discrete chunks of some minimum size
shape of d orbital number 5
5 shapes
shape of p orbital number 3
shape of s orbital number 1
sharing of electrons between two bonded atoms
covalent bond
smallest wavelength
gamma rays
any change in temp, concentration, or pressure on an equilibrium system
tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a bond
these control the chemistry of the elements
valence electrons
these electrons are more easily removed, outer or inner
this is the purest covalent bond
between two identical atoms
unequal sharing of electrons
polar bond
what 2 things make collisions effective
1. adequate rate
2. correct angle
What are Alcohols?
Carbon-Oxygen Hydrogen Bond
Ex. Ethanol
What are Aldehydes?
A double bonded Oxygen bonded to just one carbon, on one side. (Hydrogen may be on other side)
Ex. 3-methylhexanal
What are Alkenes?
carbon--carbon double bond
Ex. 1-octene
What are Alkynes?
Carbon---Carbon Triple bond
Ex. 4-octyne
What are Amides?
A double bonded Oxygen bonded to just one carbon, on one side, a nitrogen on the other side bonded to two carbons. (carbon could be a hydrogen)
Ex. 7-methyl octanamide
What are Amines?
A Nitrgoen being bonded to Carbon or hydrogen
Ex. Diethyl Amine
What are Aromatics?
Cyclic compound triple bonded to another.
Ex. Benzene
What are Carboxylic Acids?
A double bonded Oxygen bonded to just one carbon, on one side and an OH group on the other side.
Ex. Propanoic acid
What are Esters?
A double bonded Oxygen bonded to just one carbon, on one side and an oxygen bonded to a carbon on the other side.
Ex. Ethyl Butanoate
What are Ethers?
Carbon-Oxygen-Carbon bond
Ex. Diethyl Ether
What are Haloalkanes?
Alkyl halides,
carbon-Halogen Bond
Ex. 3-chloroheptane
What are Ionic Bonds?
Formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another to create ions (ionic bonds are formed between metal and a non-metal).
What are Ketones?
A double bonded Oxygen bonded to just two carbons, one on each sides.
Ex. 2-Decanone
What are oxidation numbers?
They are assigned to atoms in order to keep track of the redistribution of electrons during a chemical reaction
What are the 4 quantum numbers?
n(principle quantum #): 0 to infinity
l(angular momentum quantum #): 0 to n-l
m (magnetic quantum #): l to 0 to +l
*All three of these quantum #'s are always integers*
s(spin quantum #): (+1/2 or
what different kinds of stress can you put on equilibrium and what are the affects
1. change in pressure- if you increase the pressure, it will shift towards the side with less moles
2. change in concentration- increasing causes more effective collisions
A+B---> C+D
if you start with decrease, the other two on the other side wiill decreawse, if you start with increase the other two on the other side will increase
4. change in temp- an increase in temperature favors teh ENDOthermic reaction
What does a salt bridge do?
A salt bridge allows the charge gradient to be dissipated, which permits the exchange of cations and anions
What does a salt bridge usually contain?
It usually contains an inert electrolyte, usually KCL or NH4NO3, whose ions will not react with the electrodes or with the ions in solution
What does Hess's Law State?
If a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, (delta)H for te reaction will equal the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps.
What does the law of conservation of charge say?
It says that an electrical charge can be neither created nor destroyed
What does this law imply about oxidation and reduction?
An isolated loss or gain of electrons cannot occur, but they must occur simultaneously, resulting in an electron transfer called a redox reaction
what happens to energy as bonds are formed?
energy is released
What is a covalent bond?
A bond that is formed when the two atoms share electrons (covalent bonds are formed between non-metals).
What is a reducing agent?
It causes the other atom to be reduced, and is it oxidized
What is an orbital?
A region of space where the probabilty of finding an electron is large.
What is an oxidizing agent?
It causes another atom in a redox reaction to under oxidation, and is itself reduced
What is Aufbau Principle?
Orbitals are filled up so that those of lowest energy are filled first.
What is Hund's Rule?
When we come to orbitals of equal energy (degenrate orbital) such as the three "p" orbital, we add one electron to each with their spins unpaired until each degenerate orbital contains one electron, then, we begin adding a second electron to each degenerate orbital so that the spins are paired.
What is Organic Chemistry?
Chemistry of compounds containing carbon.
What is oxidation?
The loss of electrons
What is reduction?
The gain of electrons
What is the Heinsenburg Uncertainty principle?
We CANNOT know simultaneously the position and momentum of an electron. That is, we cannot pin down the electrons as precisely as our explanation suggests.
What is the Octet Rule?
Bonded atoms tend to possess or share a total of eight valence-shell electrons.
what is the only thing that can change the value of Keq
What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
No two electrons can have the same four quantum #'s!!
What is the simplest organic compound?
Methane: CH4
What is the symbol for enthalpy?
what Keq FAVORS the products
when it is GREATER THAN 1
what keq favors the reactants
when it is LESS THAN 1
when do pressure changes not have an effect on the rate of reaction
when only solids and liquids are involveed
when is G equilibrium
when delta G is zero
when is G improbable
when delta G is prositive
when is G spontaneous
when delta G is negative
Which direction do electrons flow?
They flow from the anode through the wire and the voltmeter toward the cathode