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10 Cards in this Set

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What is the differnce bt surveillance and monitoring?
Surveillance is a system of collecting, processing
and summarizing data about disease where some directed
action will be taken if the data indicate a certain disease
threshold has been breached.
Monitoring is:
The intermittent performance and analysis of
routine measurements, aimed at detecting
changes in the environment or health status of
populations. Not to be confused with
surveillance which is a continuous process.
• Active v. Passive Surveillance
– active surveillance: systematic or regular
recording of cases of a designated disease
or group of diseases for the specific goal
of surveillance (e.g. bovine brucellosis
slaughter surveillance)
– passive surveillance: reporting of clinical
or subclinical suspect cases to health
authorities by health care professionals at
their discretion (e.g. practitioner reported
foreign animal disease surveillance)
• Scanning v. Targeted surveillance
– scanning surveillance: also called
screening surveillance is the consistent
and standardized collection of samples and
associated data for disease detection from
generalized populations of animals (e.g.
brucellosis surveillance conducted at
bovine slaughter plants)
– targeted surveillance: collection of
samples and associated data from
specifically identified at risk populations
(e.g. BSE surveillance in cattle over 30
months of age)
Hierarchical Surveillance
– application of differing
intensities of testing or sample
collection depending on the
perceived risk or threat
• geospatial risk
• temporal risk
• socio-political risk
Key point
in the process of Probability Based Surveillance
Risk Analysis/Pathways Analysis
Threat Analysis/Modeling
US BSE surveillance program:
1. which animals are sampled?
2.What is the purpose of the surveillance progarm?
3.What is the prevalence of disease this system is designed to detect?
1.include all high-risk adults
2.Goal of surveillance was detection
• The surveillance program was not
designed to estimate prevalence of BSE
– Sampling was not random. Rather, it targeted
the high-risk population
3.Desire to detect BSE (detectable) if occurs at
1/10 million in adult population
Tests Used in USA BSE sureillance program
• All tests detect PrPsc
• Tests:
– Screening test:
• ELISA
– Designed to identify suspicious (inconclusive) samples for
further confirmatory tests.
– False positives possible/probable from time to time.
• Screening casts a wide net to detect any possible case
– Confirmatory tests:
• Immunohistochemistry
• Western blot (proprietary and OIE SAF immunoblot)
describe the role of the pracitioner in FAD surveillance.
Practitioner makes
farm call with
tentative DX
suspicion of FAD
Practitioner contacts
animal health official
(3 options):
1. Local FADD
2. State Veterinarian
3. Veterinary Services,
Area Veterinarian in
Charge (AVIC)
AVIC assigns investigation
to FADD
FADD contacts
owner/practitioner for
history, tentative DX,
and to schedule visit
Antimicrobial Drug Use in
Veterinary Medicine General recommendations
Recommendation A
Directed Actions for
Disease Management