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41 Cards in this Set

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Purpose of head and neck examination?
Detect abnormalities of systemic disease or magignant or benign lesions. 20% of head and neck cancers occur in oral cavity (tongue ventrolateral, floor of mouth, soft palate/tonsillar pillars, behind mandibular molars.
Describe the various techniques involved in performtion a thorough head and neck examination?
Palpation (digital is one finger, bi is two; manual is one hand, bi is two)
Ausculatation, diascopy, probing, percussion
Structures of the neck
Anterior cervical?
lymph nodes, carotid arteries, thyroid glands, trachea muscles
Structures of the neck
posterior neck?
posterior cervical lymph nodes, trapezius muscle
Structures of the neck
suboccipital regions?
submandibular?
1.suboccipital lymph nodes, trapezius lymph nodes
2.submandibular
Structures of the neck
submental?
buccal?
1. submental lymph nodes, sublingual glands
2. massester muscle, parotid glands
structures of the neck
preauricular regions?
TMJ, Preauricular lymph nodes
Variations of normal
mandibular tori
lobular bony hard enlargements on the lingual of the mandible
Variations of normal
palatal torus
lobular bony hard enlargement on the midline of the hard palate
exostoses
lobular bony hard enlargement on the buccal surfaces of the posterior mandible and maxilla
extopic sebaceous glands
small yellow to peach colored papules most common on the buccal and labial mucosa
linear alba
elevated white line along the occlusal plane on the buccal mucosa
leukodema
grey-white, opaque or milky surface that can be smooth or sightly wrinkled. diffuse and symmetrically distributed on the buccal mucosa
physiological pigmentation
extent of oral pigmentation is usually related to the extend of skin pigmentation, most apparent on the gingival and labial mucosa
erythema migrans (benign migratory glossitis, geographic tongue)
multiple red patches surrounded by a thickened white border, will resolve in one area and appear in other areas, usually asymptomatic
fissured tongue
typicall a central groove with multiple smaller grooves branching off, may occur in combination with migratory glossitis
hyperplastic lingual tonsils
increased in size of lingual tonsils that are often a response to an infectious stimulus
varicosities
dilated veins or venules that are blue or purple, compressible and branch with pressure. They are most common on ventral tongue, floor of mouth, lips, and buccal mucosa
plaque
flat, slightly elevated lesion
macule
flat area of color change
papule
solid, raised, less than 5 mm diameter
nodule
solid, raised, greater than 5 mm diameter
fissure
slit like groove
vessicle
fluid filled, less than 5 mm diameter (blister)
bulla
fluid filled, greater than 5 mm diameter (large blister)
postule
fluid filled with purulent material
erosion
loss of surface epithelium
ulcer
loss of surface epithelium
erythematous
red
edematous
swollen due to accumulation of watery fluid
exophytic
growing outward
endophytic
growing inward
indurated
abnormally hard
fixed
attached to adjacent or surrounding structures
sessile
base is as wide or wider than the rest of the lesion
pedunculated
lesion is on a stalk or has a base that is narrower than the rest of the lesion
papillary
numerous surface projections
verrucous
rough, watery surface
leukoplakia
clinical term for a white plaque or patch, 5-25% shows dysplasia on biopsy, 4% progress to squamous cell carcinoma
erythroplakia
clinical term for a red plaque or patch, 90% show severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma
erythroleukoplakia
clinical term for a mixed white and red plaque or patch