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165 Cards in this Set

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wife, Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, was dubbed the “Debutante of the Year”.
35
After his boat sunk, he rescued another sailor, swam to a nearby island, and communicated for help despite having a bad back. He won the Navy and Marine Corps Medal and the Purple Heart.
35
served in the Navy, as a US representative, and as a senator.
35
After a debate with his opponent, radio listeners thought his opponent had won but TV viewers thought he had won.
35
was the youngest person to be elected president.
35
was the first Catholic president.
35
administration was often nicknamed “Camelot”.
35
urged Americans to encounter a "New Frontier", a program for economic reform.
35
The Bay of Pigs invasion was an invasion of Cuba by 1,500 Cuban exiles that failed.
35
The Alliance for Progress was created, improving American homes, health, jobs, and schools.
35
The Peace Corps were founded to counter the notion of American imperialism.
35
Troubles began in Vietnam. Many US military advisors were sent there.
35
established voluntary guidelines for steel prices, which the companies failed to follow.
35
Martin Luther King led his followers on a march on Washington and gave the “I have a dream” speech.
35
The Berlin Crisis over the Berlin Wall reached its climax.
35
The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred over the Soviet’s placement of nuclear missiles in Cuba.
35
The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ended atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons.
35
The Soviets had the first man in space and had the first orbital flight.
35
Alan Shepard became the first American in space, but the US was widely considered to be losing the space race.
35
The Space Program started, and this president announced his vision of landing a man on the moon.
35
He was assassinated by Lee Oswald, a Marxist.
35
wife, Claudia Taylor “Lady Bird”, was known for her interest in saving nature. This president proposed to her when he first met her, although she initially said no.
36
This president, his wife, and both of his daughters all had the same initials.
36(Initials were LBJ)
won the Silver Star for fighting in World War II. He got off a bomber to use the bathroom and boarded another plane. The first plane later crashed into the ocean, killing all aboard.
36
was considered the most skilled politician to be president. He served as minority and majority leader in the senate and as Vice President. He was the youngest majority leader ever.
36
was the first president to be sworn in by a woman and the first president to be sworn in on a plane.
36
pursued a massive domestic program called “The Great Society”.
36
Medicare and Medicaid were created to give medical insurance to the elderly and needy.
36
A War on Poverty was started through government aid programs. Unfortunately, we didn’t win.
36
pushed for the Voting Rights Act, a major breakthrough in Civil Rights. The measure antagonized many Southerners and triggered a reversal of the parties on racial issues.
36
Martin Luther King was assassinated in Memphis by James Earl Ray.
36
The first black cabinet member, Robert Weaver, was appointed as Secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
36
Formal involvement in the Vietnam War began under the Tonkin Gulf resolution. The US appeared to be doing well at first, but the Tet offensive demoralized the nation and spurred massive peace protests.
36
The Pueblo incident dealt with a spy ship seized by North Koreans.
36
US military was sent to the Dominican Republic.
36
The 24th amendment abolished the poll tax.
36
The 25th amendment allowed for a new vice president to be appointed if there was a vacancy.
36
declined to run for re-election to focus on achieving peace in Vietnam.
36
wife, Patricia Ryan, was a high school teacher, economist, and promoted volunteering.
37
was considered cold and unpleasant and earned a reputation for nastiness. He often used negative campaigning, like in his first race for congress, and swore a lot, in addition to using racist language.
37
was nicknamed “Tricky Dick” after comparing one of his opponents to a Communist party member.
37
used anti-communist smear tactics and served on the House Committee on Un-American Activities.
37
He brought Alger Hiss, an accused communist, to the witness stand.
37
served in the Navy, as a US representative, as a US senator, as Vice President, and as a lawyer.
37
made his Checkers speech to refute allegations of having a corrupt slush fund, saying he only kept Checkers, a dog given as a gift.
37
debated Nikita Khrushchev near a model kitchen while Vice President.
37
Roe Vs Wade, a Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, was handed down.
37
Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon.
37
ended US involvement in the Vietnam War but bombed Laos and Cambodia.
37
made a visit to China, the first of an American president, and helped open trade relations.
37
The Chemical Weapons Treaty stopped the development of chemical weapons.
37
The Seabed Treaty banned nuclear weapons from the ocean floor in international waters.
37
protected the environment by creating the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, as well as strengthening the Clean Air Act.
37
The Consumer Product Safety Act created the Consumer Product Safety Commission.
37
The economy began “stagflation”, a period of inflation and high unemployment.
37
froze prices for a short time and made tax cuts to revive the economy despite saying he would not.
37
The US withdrew from the Bretton Woods agreement, unfixing the US dollar from any ties to gold.
37
first Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned after scandals about bribes and falsified taxes.
37
The 26th amendment lowered the voting age to 18.
37
resigned after the infamous Watergate Scandal, which the president helped to cover up.
37
wife, Rosalynn Smith, served as the president’s chief emissary to Latin American countries.
39
was the first president to be born in a hospital.
39
was a peanut farmer and also operated a fertilizer business.
39
served in the Navy in the first nuclear submarine.
39
worked as a deacon and a Sunday school teacher, served as a Georgia State Senator, and became Governor of Georgia. He supported civil rights quietly, but pursued endorsements by segregationists.
39
was a dark horse candidate. One campaign slogan was “not just peanuts”.
39
pardoned draft dodgers that had avoided the draft for the Vietnam War.
39
The Three Mile Island nuclear accident involved a power plant releasing radiation in the US.
39
called for worldwide human rights.
39
The Panama Canal Treaty gave up the Panama Canal Zone to Panama and guaranteed its neutrality.
39
The Camp David Accords, conducted by the US, created peace between Israel and Egypt.
39
Formal diplomatic relations with China were established.
39
Oil prices skyrocketed, causing recession, even though this president had tried to reduce US dependency on oil.
39
The SALT II Treaty was defeated.
39
cut off almost all forms of aid to Afghanistan.
39
Iran took American hostages. This president negotiated their release shortly before his term ended.
39
This president's doctrine warned the Soviet Union not to exploit unrest in the Persian Gulf.
39
won the Nobel Peace Prize after the presidency for his work spreading peace. He was considered by many the greatest ex-president.
39
wife, Elizabeth Bloomer, talked openly about her surgery due to breast cancer.
38
changed his name. His first name means spear bearer.
38
was adopted and spoke well of his stepfather.
38
had a career in U of M football and coached football at Yale.
38
served in the Navy during World War Two, as a representative, and as minority leader in the House.
38
was the first Vice President to be appointed under the 25th amendment. Nixon appointed him.
38
was the only president who was never elected as President or Vice President.
38
pardoned Nixon
38
An offer of clemency for draft evaders during Vietnam was made, but draft dodgers were not forgiven.
38
Communist forces in Vietnam captured all of Vietnam, ending the war.
38
The Mayaguez Incident occurred, when US troops recaptured the Mayaguez and its crew from Cambodia.
38
The Helsinki Agreement helped to lower tensions between the US and USSR by improving dialogue.
38
launched a gimmicky Whip Inflation Now campaign, but was forced to abandon it.
38
lent money to New York City in a massive bailout.
38
A Campaign Reform Law limited public contributions to campaigns.
38
extended the Voting Rights Act.
38
Two assassination attempts, both by women, were made on Ford.
38
wife, Nancy Davis, was a professional actress and fights drug abuse by youths. He was previously married to Jane Wyman, another actress.
40
was a professional actor and radio announcer.
40
His speaking style gave him the nickname “The Great Communicator”.
40
was drafted into the army, but spent his time making propaganda films for the army instead because he was nearsighted.
40
thought Communists were joining the Screen Actors Guild and testified to the FBI under a code name about actors he thought were disloyal, but he opposed blacklisting.
40
switched parties before serving as the Republican governor of California for two terms.
40
During his second campaign, this president asked, “Are you better off than you were four years ago?”
40
After an assassination attempt by John Hinckley, this president joked, “I forgot to duck.”
40
tamed inflation and made many new jobs.
40
economic policy, involving large tax cuts weighted towards the rich, was known as supply-side economics or “Voodoo economics”, because money for the rich was supposed to help the whole economy.
40
signed a bill ensuring Social Security would last beyond 2050, although its success is arguable.
40
The US-Canadian Trade Pact promised to abandon tariffs between the countries until 1999.
40
promised swift retribution against terrorists, but failed to follow through with Iran.
40
The Iran-Contra Scandal occurred due to the selling of arms to Iran in exchange for American hostages.
40
suspended aid to Nicaragua and aided the Contra rebels.
40
US forces invaded Grenada to free hostages there.
40
was known for massive defense spending, increasing it by 35% during his two terms. He funded a missile defense program dubbed “Star Wars” by detractors
40
appointed the first female Supreme Court Justice, Sandra Day O’Connor.
40
was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease shortly after leaving the presidency.
40
wife, Barbara Pierce, was liked by the press and has an image as “everyone’s grandmother.”
41
was the Navy’s youngest fighter pilot during World War II. He enlisted on his 18th birthday.
41
served as an ambassador to the United Nations, a US envoy to China, and as director of the CIA.
41
served as the previous president’s Vice President for two terms.
41
The Soviet Union collapsed and the Berlin Wall was destroyed, creating a New World Order.
41
The Persian Gulf War took place, in which a coalition forced Iraq out of Kuwait and its oil.
41
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred off the coast of Alaska, spreading oil and damaging wildlife.
41
The Americans with Disabilities Act required many places to offer access to disabled people.
41
The Clean Air Act was passed, giving the Environmental Protection Agency the power to limit the amount of a pollutant in the air.
41
US forces invaded Panama, capturing Dictator Manuel Noriega for drug and arms smuggling.
41
Aid to Somalia was given, initially as just humanitarian aid and later supported by Marines.
41
resumed aid on Nicaragua after the new Chamorro government took power there.
41
The Savings and Loan Crisis occurred during his term. This president bailed out the Saving and Loans.
41
raised taxes after stating, “Read my lips: No new taxes”.
41
became the second president to be the father of a president.
41
wife, Hillary Rodham, was very politically active as first lady and served as a senator of New York, an unprecedented role for a former first lady.
42
father died by drowning in a few inches of water, leaving young Bill with an abusive stepfather.
42
played the saxophone in his youth and considered becoming a professional musician.
42
served as Arkansas Attorney General and Governor of Arkansas.
42
was the youngest governor of Arkansas ever. He lost his bid for reelection and then served for four more terms.
42
He also won the democratic nomination after losing a primary, earning him the nickname “Comeback Kid”.
42
defeated George Bush in part due to the candidacy of Ross Perot, who initially polled ahead of both major candidates but subsequently lost support.
42
had an excellent economic record. He cut the budget deficit in half and had a budget surplus.
42
won election on the slogan, “It’s the economy, stupid.”
42
was called America’s first “black” president due to his high-profile affinity for blacks.
42
had several scandals including affairs with Paula Jones and Monica Lewinsky and was accused of illicit profits from real estate sales on the Whitewater River.
42
fought crime and encouraged a bill banning certain assault weapons.
42
Carol Mosley Braun became the first black female US senator.
42
“Don't ask, don't tell” policy for gays in the military came into effect.
42
helped to pass NAFTA, the North American free trade agreement.
42
Troubles in Bosnia attracted US and NATO troops, mostly ending the ethnic cleansing there.
42
The Columbine school shootings and Oklahoma City bombing caused domestic terror.
42
The World Wide Web revolutionized communication and research.
42
became active in his foundation fighting poverty and AIDS.
42
wife, Laura Welch, was a teacher and promoted reading for children.
43
worked in several failed oil companies before becoming governor of Texas.
43
served in the Air National Guard, but never saw active fighting in Vietnam.
43
The Texas Rangers were partially owned by this president for several years.
43
drew support from the religious right and states that religion stopped his alcoholism.
43
served as governor of Texas for two terms.
43
campaigned against foreign intervention but changed his mind after September 11th. Terrorism subsequently became the main focus of his administration.
43
Al Gore won the popular vote but lost to him in a disputed election that lasted for weeks with multiple recounts. Recounts were finally halted by the Supreme Court, in a partisan 5-4 vote.
43
The US withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol, a treaty to reduce global warming.
43
Tax cuts were a focus of his administration, pushed as a cure for the ailing economy.
43
encouraged a national missile defense against nuclear missiles, despite many testing issues.
43
suicide terrorist attacks on 9/11
43
the invasion of Afghanistan and the Taliban regime’s defeat
43
The Department of Homeland Security was created to centralize the fight against terror.
43
The controversial Iraq War was a swift US victory but a long and bloody occupation. Saddam Hussein, the dictator of Iraq, was captured, but this did not stop the largest anti-war protests in history.
43
pushed for an anti-gay marriage amendment that was defeated in congress.
43
A sluggish response to Hurricane Katrina raised doubts about the administration’s effectiveness.
43