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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
to, at, by means of
a; Vamos a la ciudad. We are going to the city. Vengo a las tres. I am coming at 3. Viajamos a pie. We are traveling by foot.
antes de; Leo antes de dormirme. I read before going to sleep.
bajo; El perro está bajo la mesa. The dog is under the table.
cerca de; El perro está cerca de la mesa. The dog is near the table.
con; Voy con él. I am going with him.
contra; Estoy contra la huelga. I am against the strike.
of, from, indicating possession
de; El sombrero es hecho de papel. The hat is made of paper. Soy de Nueva York. I'm from New York. Prefiero el carro de Juan. I prefer John's car (I prefer the car of John).
in front of
delante de; Mi carro está delante de la casa. My car is in front of the house.
dentro de; El perro está dentro de la jaula. The dog is inside the cage.
since, from
desde; No comí desde ayer. I haven't eaten since yesterday. Tiró el béisbol desde el carro. He threw the baseball from the car.
después de; Comemos después de la clase. We are eating after class.
detrás de; El perro está detrás de la mesa. The dog is behind the table.
durante; Dormimos durante la clase. We slept during the class.
in, on
en; Ella está en Nueva York. She is in New York. El perro está en la mesa. The dog is on the table.
on top of
encima de; El gato está encima de la casa. The cat is on top of the house.
in front of
enfrente de; El perro está enfrente de la mesa. The dog is in front of the table.
entre; El perro está entre le mesa y el sofá. The dog is between the table and the sofa.
outside of
fuera de; El perro está fuera de la casa. The dog is outside of the house.
hacia; Caminamos hacia la escuela. We are walking toward the school.
hasta; Duermo hasta las seis. I'm sleeping until 6.
for, in order to
para; El regalo es para usted. The gift is for you. Trabajo para ser rico. I work in order to be rich.
for, by
por; Damos gracias por la comida. We give thanks for the meal. Fue escrito por Juan. It was written by Juan.
according to
según; Según el periódico, va a nevar. According to the newspaper, it is going to snow.
sin; Voy sin él. I am going without him.
over, about
sobre; Se cayó sobre la silla. He fell over the chair. Es un programa sobre el presidente. It's a program about the president.
after, behind
tras; Caminaban uno tras otro. The walked one after (behind) the other.
to, but also on, at, from, by or in
to the (masculine article)
to, verb followed by __ and then by a place to indicate motion
a; Llegamos a St. Louis. Se acercó a la casa.
to, to connect a verb with a following infinitive, especially indicating the start of an action
a; Empezó a salir. Entró a hablar contigo.
by, to indicate manner or method, usually followed by a noun to form an adjectival phrase
a; a pie, by foot, a mano, by hand
at, but often not translated, to introduce a direct object that is a person or treated like a person
a, the personal "a"; Conozco a Pedro. Encontré a Fido. Veré a María.
to introduce an indirect object
a; Le doy una camisa a Jorge. Compro una camisa a Jorge
at or on, in various expressions of time
a; Salimos a las cuatro. Estamos a lunes.
with, preceeding a noun to form a prepositional phrase that functions like an adverb
con; Habla con intensidad. (He speaks intensely.) Me preguntó con cortesía. (He asked me courteously.) Vive con felicidad.
if, by, when followed by an infinitive, indicates some sort of condition being met or not met
con; on correr puedes verla. (If you run you can see her)
with, when followed by the pronoun mí or ti to say "with me" or "with you"
conmigo, contigo; Ven conmigo. (Come with me.) Vendré contigo. (I will come with you.)
of, from, with, by, in
to indicate posession, 's
de; el zapato de Juan "the shoe of John.", John's shoe
with, of, due to: following an adjective, can be used to indicate a cause
de; Estoy feliz de nuestra amistad, I am happy with our friendship; está cansada de jugar, she is tired of playing
from, place of origin of a person or thing.
de; Soy de Arkansas, I'm from Arkansas; mi madre es de la India, my mother is from India
of or no translation- characteristics of an object or person stated as a noun or infinitive, including contents or what something is made of
de; Corazón de oro, heart of gold; el tranvía de Boston, the Boston streetcar, la mesa de escribir, the writing table
than, in some comparisons
de; Tengo menos de cien libros, I have fewer than 100 books; gasta más dinero de lo que gana, he spends more money than he earns.
s or of- possession or belonging
de; el carro de Matilda, Matilda's car; la clase de Sr. Gómez, Mr. Gomez's class
combined when followed by the article "el"
del; los árboles del bosque "the trees of the forest"
in, but also can be translated as "at," "about," "by," "on top of," "upon," "inside of"
in- indicating location
en; El dinero está en la caja. The money is in the box. Vivo en España. I live in Spain. (Note: "In" meaning "inside of" also can be expressed by dentro de.)
in- indicating time and meaning
en; Llegamos en una hora. We arrive in one hour. Trabajaré en el verano. I will work in the summer.
on- indicating location and meaning
en; El dinero está en la mesa. The money is on the table. Fijó los carteles en la pared. He put the posters on the wall.
for- other than por, to express a value
en; Vendió el carro en $2.000. He sold the car for $2,000. (Note: The preposition por alternatively could have been used in the previous sentence. Vendió el carro por $2.000.)
in, on- with certain verbs
en; Competer en, to compete in; concentrarse en, to concentrate on; concurrir en, to concur in
in order to- followed by an infinitive
para; Viajamos para aprender español. (We travel in order to learn Spanish. We travel for learning Spanish.) Vive para comer. (He lives in order to eat. He lives for eating.)
for- to indicate purpose, intent, usefulness or need
para; Estudia para dentista. (She is studying to become a dentist) Quisiera una bicicleta para dos. (I'd like a bicycle for two.)
for, to- to indicate a destination
para; Salimos para Londres. (Ee are leaving for London.) No voy para casa. (I am not going home)
no later than, by, around, about- a certain time, another way of indicating intent
para; La casa estará lista para la boda. (The house will be ready for the wedding.) Llegamos para las cinco. (We're arriving around 5.)
for- considering that, in view of
para; Para niño, es inteligente. (For a child, he's intelligent.) Es caro para un papel. (It's expensive for a sheet of paper.)
for, to- indicating a personal reaction
para; Para ella, es difícil. (For her, it's difficult.) No es justo para mí. (It isn't right for me.)
about to, ready to- after estar and before an infinitive
para; Estoy para salir. (I am about to leave.) Estamos para hacer negocios. (We're ready to do business.)
for- cause or motive
because of- the cause of or reason for something
por; ¿Por qué? (Why? Because of what? For what?) Trabajo aquí por el dinero. (I work here because of the money. I work here for the money.)
for, in favor of, for the sake of- to indicate support for or action on behalf of some person or cause
por; Voto por Julia González. (I am voting for Julia Gonzales. I am voting in support of Julia Gonzalez.) Es socio de Médicos Por Justicia. (He is a member of Doctors for Justice. He is a member of Doctors Supporting Justice.)
for- how much something cost, an exchange of some sort
por; Compré el coche por $10.000 dólares.(I bought the car for $10,000.) Gracias por la comida. (Thanks for the meal.) Quisiera cambiar la camisa por una nueva. (I'd like to exchange the shirt for a new one.)
through, by, near- to indicate being in a place not to indicate a destination
por; Pasaremos por San Francisco. (We will pass through San Francisco.) La escuela no está por aquí. (The school isn't near here.)
por; El tres por ciento tiene dos coches. (Three percent have two cars.) Compré dos regalos por persona. (I bought two gifts per person. I bought two gifts for each person.)
by- when it points to someone performing an action, the author of a book or other work, or indicating the performer of a passive verb
por; Fue escrito por William Shakespeare. (It was written by William Shakespeare.) Los tacos fueron comidos por los estudiantes. (The tacos were eaten by the students.) Puedo estudiar por sí mismo. (I can read all by myself.)
in order to, so that, with the aim of, subordinator of purpose
para, para que; para conocer este artista- in order to know about this artist
joins clauses, with the 2nd clause having a different subject, subordinate verb is in the subjunctive mood
para que; Trabajo para que comes. (I work so that you eat.)
joins 2 clauses with the 2nd clause having the same subject and an infinitive
para; Trabajo para comer. (I work so that I eat.)
without- the opposite of con, usually has no defininte article like el, los
sin; Nunca conduzco sin gafas. (I never drive without glasses.) Para el paciente sin esperanza, (For the patient without hope,)
sin, followed by a verb
nearly always the infinitive form is used; Tengo que aprender a vivir sin fumar. (I need to learn to live without smoking.) Aprender sin pensar es inútil. (Learning without thinking is useless.)
between- subject pronouns
typically uses the subject pronouns yo and tú rather than the mí and ti; entre tú y yo for "between you and me" rather than the entre ti y mí
between, among
entre; Muy pronto los robots estarán entre nosotros. (Very soon, the robots will be among us.) • Estamos entre los europeos menos xenófobos. (We are among the less xenophobic Europeans.)
amidst, in the middle of
entre; Entre la muchedumbre se encontraba un terrorista. (A terrorist was found in the crowd.) • Se pierden entre la nieve. (They got lost in the snow.)
among themselves, each other
entre si; Los periodistas compiten entre sí. (The journalists compete among each other.) • Ellos se aman entre sí como una madre y un hijo. (They love each other like mother and son.)
up to, until- or similar concepts in matters of time or space
hasta; (se suspendió la exportación de carne hasta el dos de Septiembre, the export of meat was suspended until September 2 measurements (olas de hasta cinco metros, waves up to 5 meters high
durante; Durante febrero, las condiciones de sequía empeoraron. During February, drought conditions got worse.
for- followed by a time
durante; Durante años ha ocupado la atención de nuestros medios de noticias. For years it has had the attention of our news media. • Mantenerse en esta posición durante cuatro segundos. Stay in this position for four seconds.
precedes the mention of a specific person or persons used as a direct object, but not used with non-person direct objects
personal a; Levantó la taza, he lifted the cup. Levantó a la muchacha , he lifted the girl. Oigo la orquesta, I hear the orchestra. Oigo a los músicos, I hear the musicians.
personal a, pronoun exception
when used as direct objects, the pronouns alguien (somebody), nadie (nobody) and quién (whom) require the personal a. So do alguno (some) and ninguno (none) when referring to people; No veo a nadie, I don't see anyone. Quiero golpear a alguien, I want to hit somebody
personal a, pet exception
Pets names use a personal a, but the a isn't used with ordinary animals.; Veo a mi perro, Ruff, I see my dog, Ruff. Veo tres elefantes, I see three elephants
personal a, personification exception
A country or object can be personified & treated like a person using the personal a; Yo extraño mucho a los Estados Unidos, I very much miss the United States. Abracé a la muñeca a causa de era mi amiga, I hugged the doll, for she was my friend.
personal a, tener
doesn't use a personal a; Tengo tres hijos y una hija, I have three sons and a daughter. No tengo jardinero, I don't have a gardener.
personal a, tener exception exception
uses a personal a after tener when it is used in the sense to hold someone or to have someone somewhere; . Tengo a mi hijo en los brazos, I have my son in my arms. Tengo a mi hija en el pesebre, I have my daughter in the crib
since- followed by a noun, to indicate when an action begins
desde; Desde bebé, tiene una identidad propia. (Since he was a baby, he has had his own identity.)
since- followed by a time, to indicate when an action begins
desde; Desde 1900 hasta 1945, las exportaciones netas se encontraban cercanas a cero. (From 1900 to 1945, net exports were found to be close to zero.) Carlos es desde esta tarde el nuevo presidente. (Since this afternoon, Carlos has been the new president.) ¿Desde cuándo lo sabes? (Since when have you known that? For how long have you known that?)
since, from- followed by a phrase, to indicate when an action begins
desde; No habrá agua desde antes de mediodía hasta después de las ocho. (There will not be water from before noon until after 8.) Vivo en España desde hace 3 años. (I have lived in Spain since three years ago.)
from- when indicating where an action originates
desde; Hay vuelos especiales a Roma desde Madrid. (There are special flights to Rome from Madrid.) Puedes enviar un mensaje de texto a un celular desde aquí. (You can send a text message to a cellular phone from here.)
de/desde difference
desde more strongly indicates motion from a location, although it is frequently used where no destination is given; echó el libro desde el coche (he threw the book from the car) and corrió desde la playa (he ran from the beach).
using de not desde
where "of" can be substituted for "from," even if awkwardly; Soy de los Estados Unidos. (I'm from the United States. I'm of the United States.) Sacó el dinero de la bolsa. (She took the money from the purse. She took the money of the purse.)
segun pronouns
followed by subject pronouns rather than object pronouns- según yo, según tú, según ella, según nosotros, etc;
segun followed by verb
Nuestra causa es justa según comprendo. Our cause is just according to my understanding. • Según tienen hambre, es importante que coman. Since they are hungry, it is important that they eat;
segun alone
Comeré o no comeré, según. I'll eat or I won't, it just depends. • —¿Vas a estudiar? —Según. "Are you going to study?" "It depends.";
on, over- in terms of location, interchangeable with en
sobre; Coloca una pierna sobre el piso. (Place your knee on the floor.) La distribución correcta de la presión del cuerpo sobre la silla es esencial para el confort. (The correct distribution of the body's weight over the chair is essential for comfort.)
about- in the sense of "concerning" or "with regard to", similar to de but a bit more formal
sobre; Ésta es la primera edición de un libro sobre nuestra música popular. (This is the first edition of a book about our popular music.) Pelé presenta documental sobre su vida en Nueva York. (Pelé is presenting a documentary about his life in New York.)
over- in matters such as superiority, influence or control
sobre; El uso del bus triunfa sobre el coche entre los universitarios. (Among university students, the use of buses triumphs over the use of cars.) La industria de salud posee una enorme influencia sobre las políticas de salud. (The health industry has a great influence over the politics of health.) Me es repugnante la dominación de un sexo sobre el otro. (The domination of one sex over the other is repugnant to me.)
around, about- approximation when discussing time, not hacia
sobre; Sobre las seis de la tarde volvimos al hotel. (We are arriving at the hotel at about 6 in the evening.) Sobre 1940 el mercado de la ciencia ficción comenzó a subir de nuevo. (About 1940 the market for science fiction began to grow again.)
around- motion around a center of rotation
sobre; El planeta gira sobre su eje una vez cada 58,7 días. (The planet rotates around its axis once each 58.7 days.)
against- in opposition to
contra; La Unión Europea decidió imponer sanciones contra el presidente. (The European Union decided to impose sanctions against the president.) • Se dedican a la lucha contra la explotación. (They are dedicated to the fight against exploitation.)
against- when referring to location
contra; La silla está contra la pared. (The chair is against the wall. The chair is next to the wall.) • La tiró contra la casa. (He threw it against the house. He threw it at the house.)
hacia; Corrió hacia el coche para tratar de sacar a su amigo, vivo y conciente. (He ran toward the car in order to try to remove his friend, who was alive and conscious.) • Los vientos más fuertes del planeta avanzan hacia el este a una velocidad de 1.600 kilómetros por hora. (The planet's strongest winds blow eastward at a speed of 1,600 kilometers per hour.)
at, toward- with mirar and other verbs to indicate the direction someone is looking
hacia; Natalia miró hacia Mateo con un gesto de frustración. (Natalia looked toward Mateo with a look of frustration on her face.) • La organización mira hacia el futuro tras un año de cambio. (The organization is looking toward the future after a year of change.)
for, towards- expressing emotions or attitudes toward a person or thing
hacia; Tiene sentimientos más profundos hacia ella, (He has very deep feelings for her.) • El sondeo reveló una disminución de la simpatía popular hacia el corte. (The poll showed a loss of popular sympathy for the court.)
around, about- to express approximations of time, not sobre
hacia; Fue construido hacia 1970. (It was built around 1970.) • Llega en helicóptero hacia las cinco de la mañana para traer provisiones. (He arrives by helicopter at about 5 a.m. to bring provisions.)
infinitives after prepositions
used but participle isn't; Correct: Estoy harta de pensar en ti. Incorrect: Estoy harta de pensando en ti.
hablar to or with
use con, not a, to also means with in these situations; Habla con ella" es un film por Pedro Almodóvar. ("Talk to Her" is a film by Pedro Almodóvar.) • Hablaré con los estudiantes. (I will talk to the students.)
about- after hablar
de, although sobre is sometimes used; No hablaban de ti. (They weren't talking about you.) • Los tres líderes hablaron de cosas distintas. (The three leader talked about different things.)
prepositions with subject pronouns
entre- between, excepto- except, incluso- including, menos- except, sugún- according to, salvo- except;