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9 Cards in this Set

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Uses of por:
to express gratitude or apology

for multiplication and division

for velocity frequency and portion

meaning "through," "along," "by" or "in the area of"

when talking about exchange (including sales)

to mean "on behalf of," or "in favor of,"

to express a length of time

to express an undetermined, or general time, meaning "during"

for means of communication or transportation

to show the reason for an errand (with ir, venir, pasar, mandar, volver, and preguntar)

when followed by an infinitive

TO EXPRESS CAUSE OR REASON

"estar por" means to be in the mood, or inclined to do something

in passive constructions
Uses of para:
to indicate destination

to show the use or purpose of something

to mean "in order to" or "for the purpose of"

to indicate a recipient

to express a deadline or specific time

to express a contrast from what is expected

"estar para" to express an action that will soon be completed
Por and Para in questions
"¿Por qué?" means "Why?" (for what reason) while "¿Para qué?" means "Why?" (for what purpose).
Uses of the personal "a":
when the direct object is a person

if the direct object is a domesticated animal, especially a pet, provided that the speaker attaches some sort of personal feelings towards the animal
When NOT to use the personal "a"
If the direct object is an indefinite person, the personal "a" is NOT used


"a" is NOT used after the verb tener, or the verb form hay. This is true even if the direct object is a person
Personal a is always used before...
alguien, alguno, ninguno, nadie, and todos when they refer to people
other uses of "a"
"a" = "to" or "in" when accompanied by verbs of motion
Ex: Vamos al cine
Llegamos a Madrid

"a" equal "at" in references to time
Ex: Te llame a las cuatro
uses of de
to indicate possession
ex: el coche del profesor
los padres de Elena

"de" equals "of" or "from" in terms of origin and material
Ex: Yo soy de Nueva York
Mi reloj es de plastico

used to connect 2 nouns in order to turn one into an adjective
Ex: tengo un reloj de plastico

"de" equals "with" when referring to properties or qualities of a person or thing

"de" equals "in" when used in:
- expressing in the morning/evening
- in superlative constructions
uses of en
"en" = IN or ON in terms of location or placement
Ex: Puse los papeles en la mesa

Used for in the morning/evening when making general references to a period of time rather than an hour of the day

"en" = AT with all verbs OTHER than verbs of motion

"en" = BY for a means of transportation