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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is genetics?
The scientific study of heredity
What is fertilization?
When male and female reproductive celss join
What is true breeding?
Term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
What is a trait?
A specific characteristic
What is a hybrid?
The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
What are genes?
Sequence on DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
What are alleles?
Different forms of a gene
What is segregation?
Separation in alleles
What are gametes?
Sex cells
What is probability?
The likelihood that a particular event will occur
What is a Punnett square?
a diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
homozygous
organisms that have 2 identical alleles for a particular trait
heterozygous
organisms that have 2 different alleles for a particular trait
phenotype
physical characteristic
genotype
genetic make up (TT, Tt, tt)
independent assortment
independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
incomplete dominance
one allele isn't completely dominant over the other
codominance
both alleles contribute to the phenotype of an organism (blend together)
multiple alleles
3 or more alleles of the same gene
polygenic traits
traits controlled by 2 or more genes
homologous
chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
diploid
cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
haploid
cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and one set of genes
meiosis
# of chromosomes PER cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
tetrad
structure that contains 4 CHROMATIDS formed suring meiosis
crossing-over
homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
gene map
diagram that shows relative locations of each known gene in a particular chromosome
What process is a process of reduction division?
meiosis
What is the purpose of meiosis?
form gametes (egg and sperm)
If we start with a diploid cell, how do we get an organism that produces haploid gametes?
meiosis (1 replication, 2 divisions)
What happens during interphase?
growth, make DNA, protein, and organelles
Meiosis I consists of what phases?
interphase,prophase I, metephase I, anaphase I, and telophase I
What happens during prophase I?
tetrads form, nucleus and nucleoli disappear, crossing-over
What happens during metaphase I?
tetrads line up at center, independent assortment
What happens during anaphase I?
tetrads separate
What happens during telophase I?
nuclear membranes form, separates into 2 new haploid cells
The 4 haploid cells produced in meiosis are what?
sperm
In females, 4 haploid cells are produced but only one is a what?
viable egg
The other 3 produced are what?
polar bodies
Male gametes are produced from what process?
spermatogenesis
Female gametes are produced from what process?
oogenesis
How many daughter cells are produced in mitosis?
2 diploid cells (same)
How many daughter cells are produced in meiosis?
4 haploid cells (different)
What type of cells are produced in mitosis?
body celss
What type of cells are produced in meiosis?
gametes
How many divisions in mitosos?
1
How many divisions in meiosis?
2
How many replications in mitosis?
1
How many replications in meiosis?
1
What is the purpose of mitosis?
growth, repair, asexual reproduction
What is the purpose of meiosis?
sexual reproduction
What is heredity?
the passing of genes from one generation to the next
What are the male sex structures in a plant called?
stamen
What are the female sex structures in a plant called?
pistil
What is the principle of dominance?
Some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
What is the principle of independent assortment?
genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
What is the principle of segregation?
the alleles segregated during the formation of gametes
What can the principle of probability be used for?
predict the outcome of genetic crosses
What was the ratio of Mendel's 2-factor cross?
9:3:3:1
Do alleles for seed shape independently assort?
Yes
The alleles for different genes usually segregate _____________ of one another?
independently
example of incomplete dominance
4 o'clock flower

red + white = pink
example of codominance
chicken feathers

(spots on feathers or fur)
example of multiple alleles
rabbit's coat color, human blood type, human eye color
example of polygenic traits
human skin color, eye color in fruit flies
An individual _______ have more than 2 alleles, but there are more than 2 alleles in the population for a given trait.
CANNOT
polygenic inheritance
interaction of many genes controls one trait
Genes and the _________ determine the characteristics of an organism.
environment
Chromosomes do assort independently, but the genes on the chromosomes can be ___________ together.
linked
Linked genes are located on the ______ chromosome.
Same
Linked genes are inherited _________.
together.
Linked genes don't undergo _________. They don't follow Mendel's law.
independent assortment
linkage group
all the genes on a chromosome
What does crossing-over produce?
recombinants, which are new combinations of genes
The _______ genes are from each other, the more likely they are to cross over.
further
Crossing over occurs _________ among linkage groups.
randomly