• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/112

Click to flip

112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Hemostasis?
Causes bleeding to stop.
The process of keeping blood within a damanged blood vessel.
What is the opposite of Hemostasis?
Hemmorage.
Define: Endothelial cells:
The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels,
What happens to endothelial cells when endothelial injury occurs?
Endothelial cells cease secretion of coagulation and aggregation inhibitors and secret von Willebrand factor adn tissue thromboplastin
What does the von Willebrand factor and tissue thromboplastin do?
Initates the maintance of hemostasis after injury.
Define thromboplastin :
Thromboplastin is a plasma protein aiding blood coagulation through conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
Define: Coagulation:
Coagulation is a complex process by which blood forms clots.
Define thromboplastin :
Thromboplastin is a plasma protein aiding blood coagulation through conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
Define: Coagulation:
Coagulation is a complex process by which blood forms clots.
What are the 4 mechanisms that Hemostasis is maintained in the body?
1. Vascular Spasm
2. Platelet plug formation
3. Blood Coagulation
4. Fibrinolysis
Define Vascular Spasm:
Damaged blood vessels constrict.
What does vasconstriction temporarily decrease?
Decreases blood flow and pressure within the vessel.
Define Platelet Plug Formation:
Platelets adhere to damaged endothelium to form platelet plug and then degranulate.
This is known as Primary Hemostasis.
The second step, Platelet Plug Formation is rapidly followed from vascoconstriction.
True. There is a rapid turn around from steps 1 and 2.
When The platelets are activated at the collagen, what do they release?
Cytokines.
(Around the area of injury).
What do platelet factors reinforce?
Reinforce local vasoconstriction and activate more platelets which stick to one another.
This forms a lose platelet plug.
When platelets stick together, they stick to the...
collagen.
They are then activated.
Define Blood coagulation:
Clots form through the conversion of Fibrinogen to Fibrin, and its addition to the platelet plug.
What is the Secondary Hemostasis?
Fibrinogen to Fibrin + Platelet Plug
What do platelet factors reinforce?
Reinforce local vasoconstriction and activate more platelets which stick to one another.
This forms a lose platelet plug.
What is "the cascade" during Secondary Hemostasis:
Cascade = series of enzymatic reactions that ends in the formation of a fibrin protein fiber mesh (stablizes the platelet plug).
What is the step name in the Secondary Hemostasis process?
Blood Coagulation Step.
Define: Fibrinolysis:
As damaged vessles repair itself, clot retracts, dissolved by the enzyme plasmin.
The product of Coagulation is:
A Fribrin Clot.
What is the main enzyme of a fibrin clot?
Plasmin.
When Plasmin cuts Fibrin Mesh, the circulating fragments are cleared by:
Other Proteases, kidney and liver.
What are the three Interactive components of hemostasis?
Platelets, Coagulation, Vascular.
What is "the cascade" during Secondary Hemostasis:
Cascade = series of enzymatic reactions that ends in the formation of a fibrin protein fiber mesh (stablizes the platelet plug).
What is the end product of hemostasis?
Thrombus.
Define Thrombus:
Clot.
Blood clot formed in situ within the vascular system of the body and impeding blood flow.
What is the step name in the Secondary Hemostasis process?
Blood Coagulation Step.
What is the vascular system?
Vessles that carry blood.
Define: Fibrinolysis:
As damaged vessles repair itself, clot retracts, dissolved by the enzyme plasmin.
The product of Coagulation is:
A Fribrin Clot.
What is the main enzyme of a fibrin clot?
Plasmin.
When Plasmin cuts Fibrin Mesh, the circulating fragments are cleared by:
Other Proteases, kidney and liver.
What are the three Interactive components of hemostasis?
Platelets, Coagulation, Vascular.
What is the end product of hemostasis?
Thrombus.
Define Thrombus:
Clot.
Blood clot formed in situ within the vascular system of the body and impeding blood flow.
What is the vascular system?
Vessles that carry blood.
What is the most commonly used tube top color for coagulation?
Blue Tops.
What do blue tops have?
What does it do?
Sodium Citrate. (3.2 - 3.8%)
Functions as an anti-coagulant by chealting calcium.
What does the citrate prevent?
Prevents the rapid deterioration of liable coagulation factors.
What is the proportion of blood to the sodium citrate anti-coagulation volume?
9:1 Ratio
Blood : Sodium Citrate anticoagulant.
The 4 Screening coagulation tests performed with Blue Tops:
1. Bleeding Time
2. Prothrombin Time (PT)
3. Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT/ aPTT)
4. Thrombin Time (DIC)
What pathway is the PTT / aPTT?
Intrinsic Pathway.
What Pathway is the Prothrombin Time (PT) a part of?
Extrinsic Pathway.
What pathway is Thrombin Time a part of (DIC)
Common Pathway.
4 Specific Tests in Coagulation tests:
1. Factor assays - hemophilia
2. Tests of thrombosis - TT/ FDP
3. Platelet function studies: adhesion, aggregation, release tests
4.Bone Marrow Study
What do blue tops have?
What does it do?
Sodium Citrate. (3.2 - 3.8%)
Functions as an anti-coagulant by chealting calcium.
What does the citrate prevent?
Prevents the rapid deterioration of liable coagulation factors.
What is the proportion of blood to the sodium citrate anti-coagulation volume?
9:1 Ratio
Blood : Sodium Citrate anticoagulant.
The 4 Screening coagulation tests performed with Blue Tops:
1. Bleeding Time
2. Prothrombin Time (PT)
3. Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT/ aPTT)
4. Thrombin Time (DIC)
Screening Test: Bleeding Time
Why is the Bleeding Time test done?
Done to assess platelet function.
Screening Test: Bleeding Time
Describe the Bleeding Time test (basic)
Cut underside of forearm (no hair, no veins).
Screening Test: Bleeding Time
Describe the Duke Method:
Patient pricked with needle/ lancet (earlope, fingertip)
3-4mm deep
Wipes blood ever 30 seconds on filter paper
Test ends when bleeding ends.
What is the usual bleeding time?
1-3 minutes.
Screening Test: Prothrombin Time
What does the PT (Prothrombin Time) measure?
PT measures how long it takes blood to clot.
Checks for bleeding problems
Check to see if medication to prevent clots is working.
Screening Test: Prothrombin Time
What is another name for the Prothrombin Time (PT) test?
PT is also known as INR Test.
INR means:
International Normalized Ratio.
Screening Test: Bleeding Time
Why is the Bleeding Time test done?
Done to assess platelet function.
Screening Test: Partial Prothrombin Time test is also known as:
PTT is also known as an aPTT
activated partial thromboplastin time
Screening Test: Bleeding Time
Why is the Bleeding Time test done?
Done to assess platelet function.
Screening Test: Bleeding Time
Describe the Bleeding Time test (basic)
Cut underside of forearm (no hair, no veins).
What is the purpose of a PTT / aPTT?
Performance indicator that measures the efficacy of both the intrinsic and common coagulation pathways.
Screening Test: Bleeding Time
Describe the Duke Method:
Patient pricked with needle/ lancet (earlope, fingertip)
3-4mm deep
Wipes blood ever 30 seconds on filter paper
Test ends when bleeding ends.
Screening Test: Bleeding Time
Describe the Bleeding Time test (basic)
Cut underside of forearm (no hair, no veins).
Intrinsic Pathway is also known as the __ ___ pathway.
as the CONTACT ACTIVATION Pathway.
Screening Test: Bleeding Time
Describe the Duke Method:
Patient pricked with needle/ lancet (earlope, fingertip)
3-4mm deep
Wipes blood ever 30 seconds on filter paper
Test ends when bleeding ends.
What is the usual bleeding time?
1-3 minutes.
What is the usual bleeding time?
1-3 minutes.
Screening Test: Prothrombin Time
What does the PT (Prothrombin Time) measure?
PT measures how long it takes blood to clot.
Checks for bleeding problems
Check to see if medication to prevent clots is working.
Screening Test: Prothrombin Time
What is another name for the Prothrombin Time (PT) test?
PT is also known as INR Test.
INR means:
International Normalized Ratio.
What is the purpose of a PTT / aPTT?
Performance indicator that measures the efficacy of both the intrinsic and common coagulation pathways.
Checks for abnormalities.
Screening Test: Partial Prothrombin Time test is also known as:
PTT is also known as an aPTT
activated partial thromboplastin time
What is the purpose of a PTT / aPTT?
Performance indicator that measures the efficacy of both the intrinsic and common coagulation pathways.
Checks for abnormalities in blood clotthing.
Intrinsic Pathway is also known as the __ ___ pathway.
as the CONTACT ACTIVATION Pathway.
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)/ Activated Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) is used to monitor drugs like:
cumadin and heparin (majour anti-coagulants)
PTT is used in conjunction with the PT which measures the...
... extrinsic pathway.
Screening Test: Thrombin Time
Thrombin Time measures
the time it takes for a clot to form in the plasma.
(..from a blood sample in anti-coagulant which had an added excess of thrombin).
What is another name for the Thrombin Time (TT) test?
TT is also known as the Thrombin Clotting Time (TCT).
Pathways:
The Intrinsic (aPTT) and Extinsic (PT) Pathway combine in the
Common Pathway.
Screening Test: Thrombin Time
Thrombin Time measures
the time it takes for a clot to form in the plasma.
(..from a blood sample in anti-coagulant which had an added excess of thrombin).
The Common Path (Thrombin) leads to:
Clotting
(Fibrinogen to Fibrin)
Screening Test: Thrombin Time
Process for the test?
Repeated with pooled plasma from normal patients.
difference is the abnormailty in the convesion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
Coagulation Factors: Define what it means:
factors in the blood whose actions are essential for blood coagulation.
What is another name for the Thrombin Time (TT) test?
TT is also known as the Thrombin Clotting Time (TCT).
Fibrogen (used or not used?)
not used
Prothrobin (Stable or not stable?)
Stable
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)/ Activated Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) is used to monitor drugs like:
cumadin and heparin (majour anti-coagulants)
The Common Path (Thrombin) leads to:
Clotting
(Fibrinogen to Fibrin)
Coagulation Factors: Define what it means:
factors in the blood whose actions are essential for blood coagulation.
Screening Test: Thrombin Time
Thrombin Time measures
the time it takes for a clot to form in the plasma.
(..from a blood sample in anti-coagulant which had an added excess of thrombin).
Screening Test: Thrombin Time
Process for the test?
Repeated with pooled plasma from normal patients.
difference is the abnormailty in the convesion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
What is another name for the Thrombin Time (TT) test?
TT is also known as the Thrombin Clotting Time (TCT).
The Common Path (Thrombin) leads to:
Clotting
(Fibrinogen to Fibrin)
Coagulation Factors: Define what it means:
factors in the blood whose actions are essential for blood coagulation.
Name the first 3 factors:
1. Fibrinogen
2. Prothombin
3. Tissue Thomboplastin
Name Factors 4,5,6,7:
4. Calcium
5. Labile Factor
6. Not Used
7. Stable Factor
Name the 8th Factor:
8. Antihemopheliac Factor A
What does "point of care testing" / "POCT" mean?
Diagnostic testing performed at or near site where clinical care is delivered.
Why is Point of Care Testing (POCT) benneficial?
Provides quicker results (Faster TAT: Turn around time)
What are 3 limitations of P.O.C.T?
1. Variability is high
2. Standardization is low
3. Validity is low
Where can POCT be used in the operating room?
- cardiac surgery
- interventional cardio / radiology
- critical care
Where can POCT be used in Satellite sites?
- dialysis
- emergency room
- anticoagulation clinic
Will POC results match the lab?
Not necessarily, but they will correlate.
An INR within 0.4 of lab chances are
80%
An INR within 0.7% of lab are:
90%
An INR within 1.0 of lab are:
95%
Why is Point of Care important?
Faster Turn Around Time (TAT) - point of clinician (not the lab).
When is TAT important?
- ER
- ICU/ CCU
- OR
- STAT Testig