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20 Cards in this Set

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Homologous Chromosomes
a pair of similar autosomes
Haploid Cells
23 single chromosomes
Diploid Cells
23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total)
Meiosis
Cell division that produces haploid daughter cells from a diploid parent cell
Down Syndrome
1) Trisomy 21
2) Results from Nondisjunction
3) Incidence increases with mother's age
Review of Oogenesis
1) Primary oocytes of a female are arrested in Prophase I until puberty
2) One primary oocyte a month divides into a secondary oocyte and polar body
3) Oocyte is ovulated
4) If not fertilized in 24 hours oocyte degenerates
5) If fertilized, it finishes meiosis and produces an ovum and polar body
Fertilization
1) Restores the diploid number of cells
2) Occurs in the ampulla
3) Capacitation
Capacitation
1) Conditioning when sperm coat is modified to be able to fertilize the oocyte
2) Glycoprotein coat and proteins are removed from sperm plasma membrane over the acrosome
Three Phases of Fertilization
1) Corona Radiata Penetration
2) Zona Pellucida Penetration
3) Fusion of Sperm and Oocyte Plasma Membrane
Corona Radiata Penetration
Acrosome Reaction: release enzymes from acrosome; forms passageway between cells
Zona Pellucida Penetration
1) Other sperm able to release enzymes to penetrate zona
2) Once one sperm penetrates zona, it hardens and prevents polyspermy
Fusion of Sperm and Oocyte Plasma Membrane
1) Once the nucleus of the sperm enters the secondary oocyte, the oocyte completes second meiotic division
2) The pronuclei of the sperm and ovum fuse, formin a single nucleus
Implantation
1) Zona Pellucida begins to break down
2) Trophoblast cells invade the endometrium
3) Cytotrophoblast subdivides
A) Cytotrophoblast(inner layer)
B) Syncytiotrophoblast (outer layer)- burrows into the endometrium
Tubal Pregnancy
1) Ectopic pregnancy
2) Fertilized oocyte implants in the uterine tube
3) Uterine tube unable to expand as fetus develops
4) No current treatment for tubal pregnancey that saves embryo
Development of the Placenta
1) Fetal Portion develops from chorion
2) Maternal Portion forms from functional layer of uterus
3) Embryo connected to placenta via connecting stalk
4) Chorionic villi form from chorion
A) Branches of fetal blood vessels adjacent to the endometrium
B) Blood never mix, but nutrients, oxygen, and carbon dioxide can be transferred
Stages of Labor
1) Dilation
2) Expulsion
3) Placental
Dilation
Begins with first regular contractions, ends when cervix is fully dilated by baby's head (longest stage)
Expulsion
Lasts from full dilation to delivery
Placental
1) Eliminates placenta
2) Accomplished within 15 minutes after birth of infant
Cesarean Section
1) Deformed or male-like pelvis
2) Placenta previa
3) Previous C-section
4) Placenta Abruption
5) Atypical presentation of neonate