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50 Cards in this Set

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describe modes of transmission******
direct contact with blood, saliva, other body fluids, or infectious lesions.
indirect contact by transfer of microorganisms from a contaminated object such as a dental instrument
Herpes simplex
HSV1 primarily nonsexual transmission
HSV2 primarily sexual transmission
present in sulcular epithelium, dental trauma may cause ulceration, acyclovir drug of choice
what is virulence
the degree of pathogenicity or disease-evoking power of an infectious agent
what is permucousal
through a mucous membrane; non-intact skin (dermatitis)
what is percutaneous
through the skin; (piercing skin-needle stick)
decribe the procedures for obtaining the clients health history
obtain, review, update; address specific questions to present health status; patients may suppress information
decribe the clinical management for TB
update medical history, refer patient with symptoms, defer elective treatment check for enlarged lymph nodes, ulcers may occur.
Describe multidrug resistant TB
common meds: isoniaxid, rifampi, pyrazinamide.
if not taken properly resistance can develop.
supervision needed.
HIV intraoral exam
you may see:
fungal-candidiasis, viral infections include:herpes simplex, hairy leukoplakia, verruca vulgaris, and cytomegalovirus ulcer, bacterial infections include: gingival and periodontal infections, NUG, NUP, linear gingival erythema
IMPORTANT FACT!!!!
subclinical cases of Hep B is more virulent tna acute cases of HIV
Herpes Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)
associated with AIDS, affect fetus, in body fluids, prevalent in daycares, most recent form of herpes to be discovered
immunize!!!!
pre and post exposure prophylaxis, intramusculary in 3 doses 0, 1, 6 months, in deltoid muscle for women, in thigh for infants and newborns, post exposure (Heb B Immune Globulin) HBIG
Herpes Varicella-Zoster (VZV)
contagious, rash that becomes vesicular, same as Herpes Zoster (shingles)
-pain associated with nerve endings
Ocular Herpes
HSV in the eye, can be either HSV 1or2, splashing saliva or fluid from vesicular lesion into eye, can cause blindness.
what does mononuclosis petechiae look like in the oral cavity
symptoms show up as little red spots orally
name some ports of exit
skin, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract
pathogens that are transmissible by the oral cavity inlude:
TB, viral hepatitis, AIDS, and Herpetic infections
HIV extraoral exam
lymphadenopathy-enlarged lyph glands, skin lesions: Kaposi's sarcoma-malignant vascular tumor, Purpura-petechiae or hemorrhages in skin, herpetic lesions
name some reservoirs
people (oral cavity, hands), equipment, instruments, and water (DUWL)
what is cross contamination*****
preventing the spread of pathogens from: client to HCW, HCW to client, client to client, dental office to community, community to client
name some factors that influence the development of infections
#of organism and duration of exposure, virulence of organisms, immune status of host, general physical health and nutritional status of host ( immunizations)
describe ports of entry
spatter of microrganisms onto nonintact skin or mucous membranes (intraoral, nasal, ocular), droplet or airborne transfer of microrganism, exposure through skin permucosal or percutaneous
prevention of transmission includes:
reduce microbial count in susceptible persons (preprocedural rinse or brushing), interurupt transmission (rubber dam, high volume evacuation, and manual instrumentation), DUWL management and PPE for clinician
what is spatter
heavier, visible particles (blood, saliva) measuring more than 50 microns in diameter. can collect on formites(inanimate objects like clothing or paper that absorb and transmit infectious agents)
HBV disease process****
Incubation 2-6 months, communicable before, during and after clinical signs, chronic carrier (many are), can cause cirrhosis and liver cancer
Hep B
any age, blood and body fluids, percutaneous, permucosal,perinatal, (needles, sex, birth)institutionalized (downs syndrome), healthcare workers, travelers, immigrants
Hepatitis E
feca oral route, blood-borne rare, poor sanitation-floods, underdeveloped countries, travelers- e.Africa, Asia, Central America
name the 6 elements contained in the cyclic process
infectious agents, reservoirs, ports of exit and entry, modes of transmissionm susceptible host, infection control protocol
Immunizations only protect us from which type of hepatitis
Hep B and D
Hepatitis G
identified in 1996, incubation period unknown, blood borne????, sexual, perinatal
Herpes Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)
monoucleosis, oral transmission(kissing disease), pharyngeal abscess
Hepatitis C
former transfusion associated non-A, non-B Hep, blood transfusions, percutaneous(contaminated needles), nonpercutaneous-sexual, perinatal, dialysis, found in saliva,( no symptoms-flu-juandice), chronic liver disease, no vaccine
what is the communicable period of a disease
the time during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person
what is inoculation
introduction of a disease agent into a healthy individual to induce(activate) immunity
Myobacterium tuberculosis
predisposing factors include, HIV, diabetes, alcoholism and congenital ehart disease.
Aids defining disease (linked), contracted by inhalation or innoculation, 4-12 weeks incubation. Can be in aerosals from ultrasonic, A/w syringe. It is most contagious before diagnosed (cough)
HIV-1
Retrovirus RNA is the core genetic material, CD4+ is primary target cell for infection, decrease in number of CD4=cells correlates with risk and severity of HIV related illness, initial infection may cause mononucleosis like symptoms, oral lesion in later stages
what are aerosals
air-suspended liquids or solids in small invisible particles (less than 50 microns) that remain airborne for extended periods of time and can be inhaled
which pathogen can be transmitted by inhalation or innoculation
TB
what is incubation
the time interval between the initial contact with an infectious agent and the appearance of the first clinical sign or symptoms of the disease
viral hepatitis
A,B,C, D, E, G
HBV has increased in the past 20 years
what is a physical trait of myobacterium TB
the physical appearance of the disease follows the lymph nodes
HIV in children
25-40% of children born to HIV positive mothers are infected (HIV demonstrated in human milk), children who have been sexually abused are at risk, progression of disease is faster and more severe in children, oral lesions are common, sugar in their meds for HIV can cause decay
Herpetic whitlow
can occur with either HSV1 or HSV2
it is an infection of the fingers, usually around the finger nail, primary or recurrent infection, can be infectious before the lesion occurs, autoinfection from lip or intraoral herpetic lesion possible
hepatitis A
mostly children, unsanitary conditions (feces), from water or shell fish, food handlers, incubation 15-50 days, communicable before jaundice, preicteric phase-flulike symptoms, liver enlarged, icteric phase- jaundice
suspceptible hosts include
immunosuppression, medical compromised person, and elderly
name some infectious agents
bacteria, viruse, protozoa, and fungi
Hepatitis D
you must have B in order to have D, severe symptoms, death, sudden onset, chronic liver disease, bloodborne, IV drug use, sexual, HBV vaccine
HIV infection
can be spread by sexual contact, blood and blood products, perinatal( virus can be transmitted across placenta)
desribe herpes virus
highly infectious, travels along nerve ganglia, malignant tendencies, becomes latent and reactivates
primary herpetic gingivostomatitis
painful vescular lesions on gingiva, mucosa, tongue and lips, highly infectious, herpes simplex virus 1, infants and children, young adults, recurrent herpes labialis (cold sores)