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297 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
public relations is a _____ function that influences organizational objectives and philosophy and facilitates organizational change
management
public relations practitioners communicate with all relevant _____ and _____ publics (people groups) to develop positive relationships and to create consistency between organizational goals and societal expectations
internal; external
public relations practitioners _____, _____, and _____ organizational programs that promote the exchange of influence and understanding among an organization's constituent parts and publics
develop; execute; evaluate
a group of individuals or organizations who recognize their connection with a common problem, cause or goal
public
a _____ is a group of individuals or organizations who recognize their connection with a common problem, cause, or goal
public
What are the SIX (6) major groupings of publics?
(1.) community, (2.) consumers, (3.) employees, (4.) financial markets, (5.) government agencies, (6.) media
What are the SIX (6) major groupings of publics?
(1.) community, (2.) consumers, (3.) employees, (4.) financial markets, (5.) government agencies, (6.) media
The PR practitioner must discover common ground between the needs of the _____ and the needs of _____
organization; its publics
The discovery between the needs of the organization and the needs of its publics takes much _____, _____, and _____ with the publics
research; analysis; interaction
What are the FOUR (4) communication skills required for the public relations practitioner?
(1.) knowledgeable in research, planning, and evaluation techniques, (2.) an excellent writer and speaker, (3.) a specialist in communication technology, (4.) an expert in graphics and audiovisual communication
What are the FOUR (4) communication skills required for the public relations practitioner?
(1.) knowledgeable in research, planning, and evaluation techniques, (2.) an excellent writer and speaker, (3.) a specialist in communication technology, (4.) an expert in graphics and audiovisual communication
What are the FIVE (5) types of communication materials public relations practitioners often produce?
(1.) Annual reports, (2.) Electronic newsletters, (3.) Employee magazines, (4.) PR campaign creations and management, (5.) press releases
What are the FIVE (5) types of communication materials public relations practitioners often produce?
(1.) Annual reports, (2.) Electronic newsletters, (3.) Employee magazines, (4.) PR campaign creations and management, (5.) press releases
True or false? Public relations managers and media representatives need each other.
True
The idea that a public relations practitioner needs the media to deliver messages while the media needs messages about organizational and public issues is the concept that
systems involve mutually dependent parts
What are the EIGHT (8) combined functions of the PR profession?
(1.) Strategic planning; programming overall goals, (2.) forming relationships, (3.) Writing and editing, (4.) Media relations work (knowing the media's needs), (5.) Producing materials such as newsletters, press releases, and annual reports, (6.) Planning and executing special events (e.g. stockholder's meeting), (7.) Speaking for the organization, (8.) Conducting research by monitoring and evaluating public feedback
What are the EIGHT (8) combined functions of the PR profession?
(1.) Strategic planning; programming overall goals, (2.) forming relationships, (3.) Writing and editing, (4.) Media relations work (knowing the media's needs), (5.) Producing materials such as newsletters, press releases, and annual reports, (6.) Planning and executing special events (e.g. stockholder's meeting), (7.) Speaking for the organization, (8.) Conducting research by monitoring and evaluating public feedback
What is the most important function of the public relations professional?
Strategic planning/planning overall goals (this is done all the time and is very cyclical in nature)
What are the FOUR (4) types of organizations that require PR services?
(1.) Corporations, (2.) Government, (3.) Not-for-profit organizations, (4.) Public Relations Agencies/Counseling Firms
What are the FOUR (4) types of organizations that require PR services?
(1.) Corporations, (2.) Government, (3.) Not-for-profit organizations, (4.) Public Relations Agencies/Counseling Firms
Approximately _____ of all PR practitioners work for PR agencies.
1/3 (33%)
Approximately _____ of all PR practitioners work for corporations.
1/3 (33%)
Approximately _____ of all PR practitioners work for associations (such as the National Communication Association).
14%
Approximately _____ of all PR practitioners work for health care.
10%
Approximately _____ of all PR practitioners work for the government.
5%
Approximately _____ of all PR practitioners work for charitable organizations.
5%
Most PR practitioners fall into which two areas of the industry?
PR agencies and for-profit corporations
Right now, _____ of public relations practitioners have bachelor's degrees; of those, _____ are focused exclusively on public relations
2/3 (66%); half (50%)
_____ of public relations practitioners have masters degrees.
30%
The average age for public relations practitioners is _____ and has been _____ for the last decade.
39; dropping
What percentage of PR practitioners are female?
more than 7 of 10 (71%)
Although more than _____ (_____) of public relations practitioners are _____, _____ hold proportionately more top managerial positions.
7 of 10 (71%); female; men
True or false? Salary differences are still an issue with males in the public relations industry having proportionately higher salaries on average.
True
True or false? Public relations is a diverse and exciting area found in almost every area.
True
Public relations as a profession was initially an _____ phenomenon.
American
Public relations was for sure made in _____, and the _____ century is when we really started defining it.
America; 21st
Leaders throughout the world have always sought to influence their _____.
publics
the first time we see any documented persuasion
in the 1700s, around the time of the American Revolutionary War
After the Revolutionary War, the _____, a series of 85 newspaper essays about the Constitution and the new form of government, were published.
Federalist Papers
The Federalist Papers appealed to Americans for a form of government to guard and enhance what THREE (3) values?
(1.) ideals of common justice, (2.) the general welfare of the public, (3.) the rights of individuals and private property
The widespread distribution of _____ led to the ratification of the Constitution (1787-88).
the Federalist Papers
What were the Federalist Papers?
a series of 85 newspaper essays that brought about the ratification of the Constitution
The _____ (19th-20th century) was a landmark era for public relations. At the end of the 19th century, changes to social and economic conditions mandated new relations between _____ and _____.
Industrial Revolution; industry; the public
The _____ brought about a change in how products were made -- from using hand tools at home to using machine and power tools in a factory.
Industrial Revolution
What were three of the new and not always pleasant realities of American life that occurred during the Industrial Revolution?
(1.) the enforced rhythm of the factory, (2.) the stress of urban life, (3.) the vast distinction between bosses and workers
During this era, public relations began to develop as an independent profession.
The Industrial Revolution
During this era, public relations began to develop as an independent profession.
The Industrial Revolution
PR really started to develop in this era; a lot of people who owned factories said nothing was going on while employees went to newspapers and told them about the bad conditions, so we saw citizens going to the paper and talking about injustices that were happening which we did not see prior to this era at all.
The Industrial Revolution
The modern public relations profession is an outgrowth of what THREE (3) major American industrial forces in the 19th-20th centuries?
(1.) broad RECOGNITION of the power of public opinion, (2.) COMPETITION among institutions for public support, (3.) development of MEDIA to quickly influence public opinion
The modern public relations profession is an outgrowth of these three American forces in the 19th-20th centuries.
(1.) broad recognition of the power of public opinion, (2.) competition among institutions for public support, (3.) development of media to quickly influence public opinion
What was the defining attribute of the Industrial Revolution for public relations?
That public opinion does change opinions.
When corporations gradually began to realize the importance of combating hostility and courting public favor.
the Industrial Revolution
The term public relations came into use at this time.
the Industrial Revolution
The earliest appearance of the term "public relations" was when?
in Dorman Eaton's 1882 address to the graduating class of the Yale Law School.
The earliest appearance of the term public relations was probably in Dorman Eaton's 1882 address to the graduating class of _____.
the Yale Law School
What were the three stages of public relations development?
(1.) rhetorician, (2.) press agent, (3.) journalistic/publicity tradition
What were the three stages of public relations development?
(1.) rhetorician, (2.) press agent, (3.) journalistic/publicity tradition
Development of these three traditions were sequential, but all three still exist to some extent today.
(1.) rhetorician, (2.) press agent, (3.) journalistic/publicity tradition
Today, public relations is moving away from _____ and toward _____.
using any available means to achieve desired public opinion; informing the public and providing information and counsel to management.
It used to be we would send out the information any way we could, now we are getting much more strategic dependent on who our _____ is.
target audience
Public relations today is moving much more toward things like
image reconstruction, maintaining a positive image, creating a positive relationship with journalists and the media -- it's all about making sure we still stay favorable in the public's eye
the master press agent
P.T. Barnum
circus owner who masterfully and some say inaccurately used publicity to make money
P.T. Barnum
masterfully and inaccurately used publicity to make money
P.T. Barnum
would make things up and market his circus as things that were absolutely true
P.T. Barnum
the first time we saw a concerted, strategic, documented type of marketing that is very deceitful and focused on money
P.T. Barnum
the first time we saw documented information that was extremely persuasive and meant to deceive
P.T. Barnum
the first "spin doctor" of PR
P.T. Barnum
The twentieth century witnessed the use of non-violent _____ and staged events to draw attention to social/political issues.
press agentry
ingeniously used non-violence to bring independence to India
Mahatma Gandhi
successfully applied non-violent events to change American attitudes and laws about civil rights for black Americans
Martin Luther King, Jr.
True or false? The way Gandhi even dressed and traveled were meant to influence public opinion.
True
the idea of selling our message and using the media to do so
press agentry
the idea of selling our message and using the media to do so
press agentry
the first to stage events to try to bring about some kind of social change
Mahatma Gandhi
used nonviolent staged events to bring about some kind of social change for injustices
Mahatma Gandhi
the first time we saw someone head-to-toe all about the messages and changes they were trying to bring about
Mahatma Gandhi
By the early 1900s, businesses were forced to submit to what three new dynamics?
(1.) numerous governmental regulations, (2.) increasingly hostile criticism from the press, (3.) rise of the American labor union movements
By the early 1900s, businesses were forced to submit to what three new dynamics?
(1.) numerous governmental regulations, (2.) increasingly hostile criticism from the press, (3.) rise of the American labor union movements
In the stage of _____, public relations moved from the stage of press agentry to an era of public cooperation through distribution of accurate information.
journalistic/publicity tradition
During the early 1900s journalistic/publicity tradition stage, if something was misprinted in the media, people were now starting to call it out. The press and media figured out they could no longer do it, causing there to be _____ in the industry.
a lot more honesty
the father of public relations
Ivy Lee
considered the father of public relations
Ivy Lee
made the first move toward the modern practice of information sharing, such as reporting on employee benefits and safety.
Ivy Lee
clients included the Pennsylvania Railroad (1906-1909), John D. Rockefeller and the Colorado Fuel Strike (1914)
Ivy Lee
started the practice of information sharing in public relations
Ivy Lee
first person that is documented as making sure that employees were safe and got benefits
Ivy Lee
responsible for starting the first time we started seeing organizations held accountable for what was going on
Ivy Lee
worked for the Pennsylvania Railroad, where workers were overworked and underpaid; he stepped in and made sure it was held accountable
Ivy Lee
instrumental in bringing the Colorado Fuel Strike about
Ivy Lee
convinced the corporate clients of his publicity agency to become more open and honest with the public
Ivy Lee
his Declaration of Principles became the forerunner to a PR Code of Ethics
Ivy Lee
Ivy Lee's _____ became the forerunner to a PR Code of Ethics.
Declaration of Principles
the first person to be hired as a PR practitioner by companies
Ivy Lee
True or false? The guidelines established by Ivy Lee in his Declaration of Principles are no longer used today.
False (a lot of the guidelines he established are still enacted today)
The first time we saw a documented PR Code of Ethics
Ivy Lee
considered the "pioneer of public relations education'
Edward Bernays
taught the first collegiate public relations course at New York University (1925)
Edward Bernays
wrote the first public relations textbook, Crystallizing Public Opinion
Edward Bernays
developed three tools to influence public consent: (1.) market research, (2.) social surveys, (3.) public opinion polls
Edward Bernays
Bernays developed what three tools to influence public consent?
(1.) market research, (2.) social surveys, (3.) public opinion polls
taught first college course of public relations at NYU and wrote the first PR textbook
Edward Bernays
President Woodrow Wilson turned public relations from a _____ tool to an _____ one when he set up the Committee on Public Information in 1917 to gain support for _____.
defensive; offensive; World War I
President Woodrow Wilson turned public relations from a _____ tool to an _____ one when he set up the _____ in 1917 to gain support for World War I.
Committee on Public Information
Led by newspaper man George Creel, the _____ was a phenomenal success.
Committee on Public Information
Led by newspaper man _____, the Committee on Public Information was a phenomenal success.
George Creel
the first president who ever used public relations
Woodrow Wilson
the first time we saw any politician using documented persuasive messages to try to get Americans to not only buy into the notion of buying bonds but to actually get them to act
George Creel's Committee on Public Information
wanted Americans to change a behavior and the way they believed/felt about something
Woodrow Wilson/George Creel's Committee on Public Information
accepted AT&T's offer of PR vice president on the condition that he would have a voice in company policy
Arthur Page
set out to win public confidence in his duty as PR vice president
Arthur Page
Under his influence, the company he worked for went directly to the public with a film program for schools and civic groups, paid fees for employees to join outside organizations as representatives, and sought to have as many people as possible own its stock
Arthur Page
the first time we saw a job title of PR vice president within an organization
Arthur Page
the main thing about him is that he was the first to bring about a voice for public relations in terms of company policy
Arthur Page
the first time that we saw someone from an organization as PR representative actually going out into the public and being the face of an organization
Arthur Page
coined as being the first to publicly be the face of an organization and have an actual job title of PR vice president.
Arthur Page
instrumental in figuring out that if employees are vested in the organization (financially), they will be more emotionally invested and will therefore work harder and have more loyalty and trust in the company
Arthur Page
first one to take an organization into the community in terms of schools and civic groups as well as the first person to get employees to buy into an organization
Arthur Page
What two mid-20th century events significantly shaped the American culture?
(1.) The Great Depression, (2.) World War II
_____ and _____ were two events that also influenced the development of public relations as an agent of mutual influence. In terms of PR, these two events influenced a lot in terms of persuasive messages that were sent out.
The Great Depression; World War II
The greatest application of public relations techniques in the 1930s occurred where?
Germany
The Nazi propaganda machine under Joseph Goebbels viciously used _____.
press agentry
demonstrated both the dangers the effectiveness of propaganda.
the Nazis
the first time we saw someone use persuasive messages to do horrible things
Hitler
Developed a broad PR campaign in World War II to implement massive mobilization strategies such as selling war bonds, rationing food, clothing, and gasoline, planting victory gardens, recruiting military personnel, and promoting factory productivity and efficiency.
Office of War Information
The goal of the _____ was to implement massive mobilization strategies in World War II.
Office of War Information
the first time we saw active persuasive messages in terms of recruiting
Office of War Information
_____ established the first school of public relations in 1947. Two years later, one hundred colleges and universities offered classes in the subject.
Boston University
established the first school of public relations
Boston University
the first school of public relations
Boston University
In 1954, the _____ developed the first code of ethics for the profession.
Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)
set up a grievance board for code enforcement in 1962 and a program of voluntary accreditation in 1964.
Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)
a public relations pioneer in transforming racial stereotyping
Moss Kendrix
used advertising to influence how Americans viewed black citizens
Moss Kendrix
American icons such as Carnation, the Ford Motor Company, and Coca-Cola employed him to create campaigns that targeted the black community
Moss Kendrix
first African-American who was hired to target African-American communities
Moss Kendrix
first time we saw strategic marketing of products based on ethnicity
Moss Kendrix
influential in transforming racial stereotypes and getting information out there in terms of who the African-American community was and what their needs were
Moss Kendrix
used strategic advertising to influence African-Americans to get them to buy products based on need
Moss Kendrix
hired by several companies to create PR campaigns that targeted the black community -- the first time we saw it.
Moss Kendrix
the first person to create campaigns that targeted African-American communities.
Moss Kendrix
The Depression-War era led public relations to value _____ and develop massive, sophisticated strategies to communicate with and influence the public.
mutual influence
Public relations became a respected, sophisticated, and expanded profession during this era, largely through governmental and public influence.
post-WWII
True or false? Currently, public relations is evolving as a force for adaptation to public concerns on vital issues.
True
True or false? Public relations is a relatively new profession in terms of what it means to be a PR professional.
True
help practitioners explain and predict human behavior and communication and guide organizational decision making
theories
a _____ is a prediction of how events and actions are related.
theory
a prediction of how events and actions are related
theory
How do theories help the public relations practitioner?
Using theories can make campaigns and messages more effective. [We can look at these theories in terms of how effectively we can get our messages out.]
Why is it important for us to predict how events are going to go, how decision-making processes work, and to predict human behavior?
So we can better predict if people are going to buy into our message or buy our product.
cause-effect principles or theories that can guide you in understanding how an organization relates to their publics.
theories of relationships
What are the two theories of relationships?
(1.) systems theory (2.) situational theory
Systems theory and situational theory are both theories of _____, cause-effect principles or theories that can guide you in understanding how organizations relate to their publics.
relationships
the attitudes and actions of an organization or public contribute to a cause-effect chain reaction within their environment
systems theory
the idea that the parts of an organization and public exist in relationship to each other, meaning the action of one part affect the others
systems theory
can be looked at in terms of PR firms; looks at how a breakdown in any part of the system can affect everything else or, alternatively, how positive developments in one area can positively impact the other areas
systems theory
how change in one part of the system affects all other parts of the system
systems theory
especially useful to public relations because it helps the practitioner manage the organization's relationships.
systems theory
this theory emphasizes interdependence between an organization and its internal and external environments
systems theory
systems theory emphasizes _____ between an organization and its internal and external environments
interdependence
Within systems theory, _____ and _____ environments can affect the effectiveness of the system.
internal (employees and CEOs, rules spoken and unspoken); external (how communities feel about the organization)
people will act on an issue or situation when they believe it affects them personally and their actions can make a difference
situational theory
What are the three variables of situational theory?
(1.) problem recognition, (2.) constraint recognition, (3.) level of involvement
in situational theory, _____ is the idea that people must be able to see the potential of an issue to affect them personally
problem recognition
in situational theory, _____ is the idea that people must see that they can do something about the issue.
constraint recognition
in situational theory, _____ is the idea that people must care about resolving the issue.
level of involvement
In politics, if you feel like there is a candidate that is going to affect your job, you don't want that candidate to get into office -- something that would affect you personally, an example of _____.
problem recognition
If you send around a petition to get a person not nominated or feel like your vote will make a difference, you are experiencing _____.
constraint recognition
predicts and explains behavior in terms of how people will act on an issue when they believe it affects them and when they believe their actions will actually make a difference
situational theory
predicts and explains behavior in terms of how people will act on an issue when they believe it affects them and when they believe their actions will actually make a difference
situational theory
What are two benefits of situational theory?
(1.) helps the practitioner predict when groups will become active or remain apathetic, (2.) helps the practitioner create communication strategies for specific publics
helps the practitioner predict when groups will become active or remain apathetic
situational theory
helps the practitioner create communication strategies for specific publics
situational theory
You can use _____ to look at what happened in the past to predict what is probably going to happen in the future. For example, if a community did not want a Super Wal-Mart, they probably won't want a Super Target.
situational theory
_____ deal with thought processes while _____ deal with actions.
cognitive theories; behavioral theories
Public relations practitioners find it useful to think about _____ -- how their client's behavior affects others.
effects
Practitioners know that _____ and _____ are given personalized meanings by others, and sometimes that meaning is not what was intended. The practitioner then seeks to influence his or her publics' interpretations to accurately reflect the original intent.
words; actions
deals with thought processes, how people get from point A to point B
cognitive theories
involves what people do; a lot easier to observe, as when Procter & Gamble goes into a grocery store and stands in the Tide aisle and watches people walk up and ask them why they picked what they did so that they can better tailor their message to the public
behavioral theories
In terms of _____ and _____ theories, we want to change the ways people think about something or behave in a certain way -- influence our public's interpretations and make sure they are getting the message we are sending out and that they are understanding it and that our original intent is met.
cognitive; behavioral
To learn how humans think and behave, the four theories of persuasion and social influence are:
(1.) social exchange theory, (2.) diffusion theory, (3.) social learning theory, (4.) elaborated likelihood model
uses the economic metaphor of costs and benefits to predict behavior
social exchange theory
in _____, in general people want their costs low and rewards high (ex. get-rich quick schemes)
social exchange theory
_____ applies to public relations by looking at how to let publics evaluate costs and rewards to show the benefit of particular action.
social exchange theory
involves the equation of costs - rewards = outcome
social exchange theory
in _____, public relations wants to show the benefits of a particular action -- all of the rewards
social exchange theory
deals with costs and rewards
social exchange theory
the idea that individuals can be influenced to adopt an idea by going through five stages
diffusion theory
in diffusion theory, _____ is useful in the first two stages, and _____ is needed in the next two before adoption takes place
mass media; personal influence
What are the five stages of diffusion theory?
(1.) awareness, (2.) interest, (3.) evaluation, (4.) trial, (5.) adoption
within diffusion theory, _____ occurs when the topic is known but knowledge is limited. (example is with technology, like new iPhone)
awareness
within diffusion theory, _____ is when development of interest begins and information is sought. (may go to the Apple store in Kenwood mall or online to see if there is any information there)
interest
within diffusion theory, _____ is when the idea is applied to individual situations and more information is obtained. (how will this new technology personally benefit me?)
evaluation
within diffusion theory, _____ is when use begins on a small scale. (asking a friend for a quick demonstration of their iPhone, or doing one in the Apple store)
trial
within diffusion theory, _____ is when the idea, service or product is accepted after having being proven worthwhile (you are in, you're using the technology and telling everyone else that they should have it)
adoption
What are the five stages of adoption in diffusion theory?
(1.) awareness, (2.) interest, (3.) evaluation, (4.) trial, (5.) adoption
suggests that we can learn new behaviors by observing others
social learning theory
the idea that when we see a behavior has the reward we want, we may adapt that behavior for ourselves
social learning theory
an example of _____ is that in employee relations we can see that if inappropriate behavior has been rewarded for one employee, others may follow
social learning theory
literally looking at observation -- people see something, they want the reward associated with that behavior, they do it.
social learning theory
if you are in a work situation and see one employee getting a great schedule and raises but not coming into work and you adapt those behaviors, it is an example of _____.
social learning theory
says that there are two ways people are influenced: central route and a peripheral route.
elaborated likelihood model
proposes the peripheral route in which people are influenced by such things as repetition, a highly credible spokesperson, and tangible rewards (coupons, free samples)
elaborated likelihood model
the elaborated likelihood model proposes the _____ in which people are influenced by such things such as repetition, a highly credible spokesperson, and tangible rewards (coupons, free samples)
peripheral route
repetition such as Head-On, highly credible spokespeople like Oprah for her book club or Michael Jordan for sports products are examples of using the _____ of persuasion
peripheral route
two theories that help us understand the powerful influence of media are
(1.) use and gratification theory, (2.) agenda setting theory
What are the two theories of mass communication?
(1.) use and gratification theory, (2.) agenda setting theory
the idea that people are active users of media and choose how and when to use media based on the gratification for them
use and gratification theory
you should research why your particular publics use media in accordance with the
use and gratification theory
people using media as entertainment, to scan the environment for items that are important to them, as a diversion, as a substitute for personal relationships, or as a check on self-identity are all examples of
use and gratification theory
what people get out of media; they want to be entertained and not pay attention, they watch the Kardashians, Jersey Shore, etc., whereas if they want to find out the weather they watch the news
use and gratification theory
the _____ helps the public relations practitioner explain media effects, or the absence of effects
use and gratification theory
within the _____, the practitioner must remember that just because a message is available doesn't mean that people will pay attention and remember it.
use and gratification theory
can explain whether or not media is effective or whether or not it is ineffective
use and gratification theory
can explain whether or not media is effective or whether or not it is ineffective
use and gratification theory
based on the assumption that although media can't tell people what opinion to hold about an issue, it has influence on what issues people think about
agenda setting theory
the best example of this are documentaries that change how you think about something, such as Super Size Me, Religulous, and Michael Moore films; they are not telling you what you should believe but are presenting evidence so that you can think about it
agenda setting theory
the _____ proposes that media has the potential to build issue or product awareness and to increase issue salience
agenda setting theory
What are the two things the agenda setting theory proposes that media has the potential to do?
(1.) build issue or product awareness, (2.) increase issue salience
What are the three roles defined in public relations theory by scholars Glen Broom and David Dozier?
(1.) expert prescriber, (2.) communication facilitator, (3.) problem-solving facilitator
What are the three roles defined in public relations theory by scholars Glen Broom and David Dozier?
(1.) expert prescriber, (2.) communication facilitator, (3.) problem-solving facilitator
one of the three roles of public relations, the _____ is a person who operates as a consultant to define the problem, suggest options, and oversee implementation
expert prescriber
one of the three roles of public relations, the _____ is a person on the boundary between the organization and its environment who keeps two-way communication flowing
communication facilitator
one of the three roles of public relations, the _____ is a person who partners with senior management to identify and solve problems
problem-solving facilitator
An example of this is when people are not buying the product an organization creates so a PR manager suggests how to revive the product and get people to buy it again and oversees the ads to do so. (Bret Michaels on Rock of Love)
expert prescriber
because we can now get instant feedback on products, advertising, and PR campaigns through the Internet, we need people to monitor this 24/7 availability at all times
communication facilitator
may be the person in between the publics and management who is creating and maintaining relationships, also making suggestions and solving specific problems within the organization or with the client
problem-solving facilitator
Public relations is all about _____; do you do it honestly? Do you deny? It is all in the way that we make suggestions and the way we do this.
reaction
1 of the 4 public opinion principles, the _____ is the idea that people will ignore an idea, opinion, or point of view unless they clearly see that it affects their personal fears or desires, hopes or aspirations
identification principle
1 of the 4 public opinion principles, the _____ is the idea that people do not buy ideas separated from action -- either action taken or about to be taken by the sponsor of the idea or action which people themselves can conveniently take to prove the merit of the idea
action principle
1 of the 4 public opinion principles, the _____ is the idea that people buy ideas only from those they trust. We are influenced by, or adopt, only those opinions or points of view put forward by individuals or corporations or institutions in whom we have confidence.
familiarity and trust principle
1 of the 4 public opinion principles, the _____ is the idea that the situation must be clear to us, not confusing. The thing we observe, read, see, or hear ... the thing that produces our impressions must be clear and not subject to several interpretations.
clarity principle
commitment to high standards, regardless of advantage
ethics
what is morally right or wrong in social conduct, usually as determined by standards of professions, organizations, and individuals
ethics
What is ethics?
commitment to high standards, regardless of advantage
Public relations practitioners are often the source of what two ethical things?
(1.) ethical statements from the organization, (2.) organizational policies on ethical conduct
What are the five realms involving ethical practice?
(1.) ethics as standards of SOCIAL CONDUCT (5 factors: tradition, public opinion, law, morality, ethics), (2.) INDIVIDUAL ethics, (3.) BUSINESS ethics, (4.) ethical dealings with NEWS MEDIA, (5.) ethics and LAWS
What are the five realms involving ethical practice?
(1.) ethics as standards of SOCIAL CONDUCT (5 factors: tradition, public opinion, law, morality, ethics), (2.) INDIVIDUAL ethics, (3.) BUSINESS ethics, (4.) ethical dealings with NEWS MEDIA, (5.) ethics and LAWS
What are the five factors of ethics as standards of social conduct?
(1.) tradition, (2.) public opinion, (3.) law, (4.) morality, (5.) ethics
the five factors of this are tradition, public opinion, law, morality, and ethics
ethics as standards of social conduct
public relations practitioners must have high personal standards of ethics
individual ethics
personal ethics can be in conflict with organizational ethics
business ethics
trust only comes with habitual ethical performance
ethical dealings with the news media
following the letter of the law is not the same as being ethical
ethics and laws
True or false? Following the letter of the law is not the same as being ethical.
True
When there is a crisis in an organization and higher-ups want you to cover up or spin the information, which you may not be comfortable with, it is a conflict of _____.
business ethics
the idea that you should always be honest with the media and that creating and maintaining these relationships are extremely important
ethical dealings with news media
What are the five things public relations practitioners have moral obligations to?
(1.) to OURSELVES, (2.) to our CLIENTS, (3.) to our ORGANIZATIONS, (4.) to our PROFESSION, (5.) to our SOCIETY
What are the five things public relations practitioners have moral obligations to?
(1.) to OURSELVES, (2.) to our CLIENTS, (3.) to our ORGANIZATIONS, (4.) to our PROFESSION, (5.) to our SOCIETY
preserving our own integrity is involved in a practitioner's moral obligation to _____.
ourselves
to honor our contracts and to use our professional expertise on those we work for's behalf is involved in a practitioner's moral obligation to _____.
our clients
to adhere to organizational goals and policies is involved in a practitioner's moral obligation to _____.
our organizations
to uphold the standards of the profession and, by extension, the reputation of our fellow practitioner is involved in a practitioner's moral obligations to _____.
our profession
to consider social needs and claims is involved in a practitioner's moral obligations to _____.
our society
What are two rules of thumb to follow in any ethical decision?
(1.) do not lie to the press, even if full disclosure is not possible, (2.) do not allow a legal perspective on issues to determine corporate policy or response on any given issue
You should never lie to the press, even if _____ is not possible.
full disclosure
True or false? You should allow a legal perspective on issues to determine corporate policy or response on any given issue.
False
What are the five areas of legal obligations for practitioners?
(1.) First Amendment rights, (2.) defamation (libel and slander), (3.) invasion of privacy, (4.) copyright, (5.) regulations of the FTC, FDA, and FCC
What are the five areas of legal obligations for practitioners?
(1.) First Amendment rights, (2.) defamation (libel and slander), (3.) invasion of privacy, (4.) copyright, (5.) regulations of the FTC, FDA, and FCC
protects individual freedom of expression and also freedom of the press
First Amendment rights
What are the two types of defamation?
libel and slander
oral defamation
slander
published defamation
libel
True or false? The press does not have the legal right to print negative things about your business/client as long as they are based in fact.
False
Invasion of privacy occurs when what four things happen?
(1.) appropriation, (2.) publication of private information, (3.) intrusion or surreptitious observation of an entity's activities, (4.) false light
the unauthorized commercial use of an entity's picture, likeness, or care
appropriation
publishing true information not known by a great number of people
publication of private information
publication pf private information requires _____
prior consent
when true facts are embellished with falsehoods, or exaggerated or used out of context
false light
_____ is when true facts are embellished with falsehoods, or exaggerated or used out of context
false light
You cannot print or use a picture in a brochure or advertisement unless you have _____ of those in the picture.
informed consent
If you are publishing information about someone that is not public knowledge, you must have their _____.
prior consent
We see this a lot in politics, such as when a politician will say something and a small snippet is taken that puts what they said in a completely different context.
false light
You can use copyrighted material under the act's four "fair use" provisions if
(1.) it is for NON-COMMERCIAL purposes, (2.) content is not taken OUT OF CONTEXT, (3.) CREDIT is given to the source, (4.) the COMMERCIAL VALUE of the work is not materially reduced
You can use material if the percentage of the work used falls within specific limits (_____-_____ words from a major book or article)
100-200 words
refers to the names and logos of products or product brands which are legally protected for exclusive or licensed commercial use
trademarks
Corporations often seek to protect their _____ from others who could profit from them.
trademarks
products names such as Kleenex, brand names like Chevrolet, and graphics renderings of these names in specific type faces and/or with accompanying artwork are all examples of
trademarks
When coming up with a new product, you have to register the _____.
trademark
Many business problems are resolved in what two courts?
(1.) the court of law and (2.) the court of public opinion
where lawyers plead their cases, and where business problems may appear after months or years of legal delays
court of law
where a business can be tried, found guilty, and punished far more severely and quickly
court of public opinion
True or false? The court of public opinion can be a lot more damaging than the actual court of law.
True
A lot of times businesses and individuals can be tried and convicted here far more decisively.
the court of public opinion
True or false? The requirements for winning in the court of law and public opinion vary considerably.
True
What are three qualities of winners in the court of law?
(1.) those who permit their attorneys to say "no comment," (2.) those who delay legal proceedings until the other side runs of time or money, witnesses have dispersed or passed away, and the average individual has forgotten about the problem or issue involved, and (3.) those with the most money to hire the best lawyers
What are three qualities of winners in the court of public opinion?
(1.) quickly and publicly accept responsibility for their actions, (2.) redress legitimate grievances regardless of pending litigation, (3.) deal with the media, the community, and the aggrieved openly, honestly, and immediately
True or false? In the court of public opinion, money matters.
False (it can actually hurt you)
Three government agencies that can limit how public relations practitioners create and disseminate information.
(1.) FTC (Federal Trade Commission), (2.) FDA (Food and Drug Administration), (3.) FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
government agency that says communication directly affecting economic exchanges must be true.
FTC (Federal Trade Commission)
government agency that says information about food, drugs, and cosmetics must conform to federal standards for health and safety.
FDA (Food & Drug Administration)
government agency that regulates broadcasting including Public Service Announcements (PSAs) and required opportunities to respond to public issues.
FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
Such agencies are concerned with the legal dimensions of public relations messages and/or advertising claims.
government regulatory agencies
If you get any information about how your company's financial situation might change (major layoffs, finding a cure for cancer), you have to disclose it immediately because of this organization.
FTC (Federal Trade Commission)
True or false? Laws and regulations such libel and slander, copyright and trademark, and the provisions of most of the statutes and regulations also apply to the internet.
True
From practical and legal standpoints, _____ is a medium like any other.
the Internet
True or false? From practical and legal standpoints, the Internet is a medium unlike any other.
False (it is a medium like any other)