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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anything that exhibits the property of inertia
the tendency of an object to resist and change in its velocity
a property of matter that can be converted to work under the proper circumstances
Potential Energy
the energy of an object due to its position
Kinetic Energy
the energy of an object due to its motion
Radiant Energy
energy being transferred between objects by electromagnetic waves
Law of Conservation of Mass
mass is conserved in all nonnuclear changes; it cannot be created or destroyed
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy is conserved in all nonnuclear changes; it cannot be created or destroyed
Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy
although they can be interconverted, the total amount of mass and energy in the universe is constant
the material that is produced from raw materials and processed further to produce some consumer products
an arrangement analogous to, and useful for, understanding a system in nature, but existing only in one's mind
the study of the structure and properties of matter
Formula for potential energy?
Ep = mgh
Formula for kinetic energy?
Ek = 1/2 mv^2
concrning the amounts of matter present
describing something without a unit of measurement
meter - m
kilgram - kg
second - s
Electric Current?
amper - A
kelving - k
mega - M?
kilo - k?
deci - d?
centi - c?
milli - m?
micro - u?
nano - n?
pico - p?
a measurement of the quantity of matter
a measure of the force of gravity between two objects
A balance measures what?
A scale measures what?
closeness of a quantity of numbers (hitting the top of the target consistantly)
Closeness to the true value or what your aiming for (hitting the bulls-eye)
uniform throughout
composed of more than one phase
phases of matter
a physically distinct section of matter with uniform properties set off from the furrounding matter y physical boundaries
physical change
a change in which the same substance is present gefore and after
*(ex. pounding copper, cutting wood, tearing paper, dissolving sugar in water, pouring liquid from one container to another, melting, boiling)
chemical change
a rearrangement of atoms and/or molecules to produce one or more new substances with new properties
*(ex. copper in acid, sodium and chlorine = table salt, burning, digestion, fermenting, precipitate, gas, color change, energy change, decomposing
Demociritus (400 BC)
*greek philosopher, *thought "world was made of two things - empty space and atoms.
*diff. kinds of atom for every matter on Earth"
*world made of continuous paticles, hyle.
*accepted unitl 17th century
Newton and Boyle
*published articles stating belief without and proof
Lavoisier (french)
*studied by Dalton
*law of conservation of mass
Proust (french)
*studied by Dalton
*law of definite proportions
Dalton's Theory of Matter?
*matter composed of atoms (cannot be broken down)
*element atoms are exact vs. diff. atom elements diff.
*atoms can combine in simple atios forming compounds
Z number =s?
number of protons in the nucleus
atomic number?
number of protons and electrons
Aufball's Principal?
electron's fill the lowest energy levels first
Hund's Rule?
electrons are placed equally in each orbital spin
Pauli Exclusion Principal?
No two electrons have the same electron number
Heisenburg's Uncertainty Principle?
the location and speed of an electron are impossible to know at the same time
Quantum Numbers?
n =size of orbit
biger # larger orbital
l = shape of orbital
sherical = 0; polar = 1; clover leaf = 2
m = location of orbital
s = spin of orbital
+1/2 or -1/2
molecular formula?
a formula indicating the actual number of atoms of each element making up a molecule
the smallest particle of an element
a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
formula unit?
the amount of a substance represented by its formula
polyatomic ions?
a group of atoms covalently bonded but possessing an overall charge.
Formula Mass?
the sum of the atomic masses of the matoms in a formula
the Avogadro constant number of objects
Avagadro's Number?
the number of objects in a mole; 6.022 x 10^23
Formula mass is measured in what?
Atomic mass is measured in what?
A mole is equal to what?
(L = dm^3 = g) 22.4 L
Percentage Composition
the mass of an element in a compound divided by the mass of the compound
a unit of concentration equal to the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solution (M=moles of solute/volume solution dm^3)
Five types of chemical reactions?
Synthesis, Decomposition, Single displacement, Double displacement, Combustion
solid or crystalin
dissolves into water
Percent Yeild
(acutal amount/theoretical amout) x 100
Atomic Radius generally . . .
Decreases towards the top right corner
Ionic Radius generally . . .
Decreases across metals, then shoots up at the nonmetals and increases as you go downward
Ionization Energy generally . . .
Increases towards the top right hand corner
Electron Affinity generally . . .
Increases towards the top right hand corner.
Sigma bond is what?
a single bond or the first bond of a double bond
Pie bond is what?
a double bond or the second bond of a double bond