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### 78 Cards in this Set

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 Matter anything that exhibits the property of inertia Inertia the tendency of an object to resist and change in its velocity Energy a property of matter that can be converted to work under the proper circumstances Potential Energy the energy of an object due to its position Kinetic Energy the energy of an object due to its motion Radiant Energy energy being transferred between objects by electromagnetic waves Law of Conservation of Mass mass is conserved in all nonnuclear changes; it cannot be created or destroyed Law of Conservation of Energy energy is conserved in all nonnuclear changes; it cannot be created or destroyed Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy although they can be interconverted, the total amount of mass and energy in the universe is constant Intermediate the material that is produced from raw materials and processed further to produce some consumer products Model an arrangement analogous to, and useful for, understanding a system in nature, but existing only in one's mind Chemistry the study of the structure and properties of matter Formula for potential energy? Ep = mgh Formula for kinetic energy? Ek = 1/2 mv^2 Quantitative concrning the amounts of matter present Qualitative describing something without a unit of measurement Length? meter - m Mass? kilgram - kg Time? second - s Electric Current? amper - A Temperature? kelving - k mega - M? million kilo - k? thousand deci - d? tenth centi - c? hundreth milli - m? thousand micro - u? millionth nano - n? billionth pico - p? trillionth Mass a measurement of the quantity of matter Weight a measure of the force of gravity between two objects A balance measures what? mass A scale measures what? weight Precision closeness of a quantity of numbers (hitting the top of the target consistantly) Accuracy Closeness to the true value or what your aiming for (hitting the bulls-eye) homogeneous uniform throughout heterogeneous composed of more than one phase phases of matter a physically distinct section of matter with uniform properties set off from the furrounding matter y physical boundaries physical change a change in which the same substance is present gefore and after *(ex. pounding copper, cutting wood, tearing paper, dissolving sugar in water, pouring liquid from one container to another, melting, boiling) chemical change a rearrangement of atoms and/or molecules to produce one or more new substances with new properties *(ex. copper in acid, sodium and chlorine = table salt, burning, digestion, fermenting, precipitate, gas, color change, energy change, decomposing Demociritus (400 BC) *greek philosopher, *thought "world was made of two things - empty space and atoms. *diff. kinds of atom for every matter on Earth" Aristotle *world made of continuous paticles, hyle. *accepted unitl 17th century Newton and Boyle *published articles stating belief without and proof Lavoisier (french) *studied by Dalton *law of conservation of mass Proust (french) *studied by Dalton *law of definite proportions Dalton's Theory of Matter? *matter composed of atoms (cannot be broken down) *element atoms are exact vs. diff. atom elements diff. *atoms can combine in simple atios forming compounds Z number =s? number of protons in the nucleus atomic number? number of protons and electrons Aufball's Principal? electron's fill the lowest energy levels first Hund's Rule? electrons are placed equally in each orbital spin Pauli Exclusion Principal? No two electrons have the same electron number Heisenburg's Uncertainty Principle? the location and speed of an electron are impossible to know at the same time Quantum Numbers? n =size of orbit biger # larger orbital l = shape of orbital sherical = 0; polar = 1; clover leaf = 2 m = location of orbital s = spin of orbital +1/2 or -1/2 molecular formula? a formula indicating the actual number of atoms of each element making up a molecule atom? the smallest particle of an element molecule? a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds formula unit? the amount of a substance represented by its formula polyatomic ions? a group of atoms covalently bonded but possessing an overall charge. Formula Mass? the sum of the atomic masses of the matoms in a formula mole? the Avogadro constant number of objects Avagadro's Number? the number of objects in a mole; 6.022 x 10^23 Formula mass is measured in what? grams Atomic mass is measured in what? grams A mole is equal to what? (L = dm^3 = g) 22.4 L Percentage Composition the mass of an element in a compound divided by the mass of the compound Molarity a unit of concentration equal to the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solution (M=moles of solute/volume solution dm^3) Five types of chemical reactions? Synthesis, Decomposition, Single displacement, Double displacement, Combustion (cr) solid or crystalin (aq) dissolves into water (g) gas (L) liquid Percent Yeild (acutal amount/theoretical amout) x 100 Atomic Radius generally . . . Decreases towards the top right corner Ionic Radius generally . . . Decreases across metals, then shoots up at the nonmetals and increases as you go downward Ionization Energy generally . . . Increases towards the top right hand corner Electron Affinity generally . . . Increases towards the top right hand corner. Sigma bond is what? a single bond or the first bond of a double bond Pie bond is what? a double bond or the second bond of a double bond