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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Listening involves ...
Focused attending
Perceived stated and unstated messages.
Cognitive and affective parts of the client's experience.
Reflecting involves ...
Communicating empathy.
Neither adding to nor subtracting from client's messages.
Communicating back to the clients the main meaning of their messages.
Reflecting client's feelings - client's emotions as directly expressed in words or implied through nonverbal aspects.
Including checkouts to see whether the counselor's reflection is accurate.
Interpreting involves ...
Offering clients new and facilitative ways to understand their experiences.
Basing interpretation on counselors' perceptions of the client's experiences.
Clearly communicating that this is the counselor's ideas, not a reflection of the client's experiences.
Confronting involves ...
Verbally holding apparently discrepant or incongruent aspects of clients' messages and behaviors "in front of" clients for them to see.
Helping clients clarify, resolve, or accept the discrepancy.
Questioning involves ...
Asking for clarification of meaning.
Asking for information known only to the client.
Asking to understand the client's experience better.
Empathy is ...
The process of understanding a person's subjective experience by vicariously sharing that experience while maintaining an observant stance. It is a balanced curiosity leading to a deeper understanding of another human being.
How does empathy differ from interpretation?
Empathy is the ability to take oneself out of oneself and put yourself into another person's world. Interpretation is a mental representation of meaning or significance of something.
Describe an example of a well-intended but non-useful counselor response.
Non-useful responses detract or distract from client's experience, remaining superficial and limiting or discouraging exploration, understanding, and feelings about their experience. i.e. "you don't really mean that" minimizing client's feelings
Small group counseling:
- natural interpersonal context for children and adolescents
- creates safe context within which students can practice interpersonal skills and get feedback
- allow students to hear from others with similar experiences
Allow many more students to be served by the counselor than 1-1 activities.
Many different types of groups.
- educational
- task
- discussion
- experiential
- support
- self-help
- counseling or self-help
Group Process
Whose role is it to encourage group development of expression, exploration, and self-disclosure, to discourage dynamics that hinder expression and openness and to model healthy, appropriate interpersonal communication?
the facilitator
What are some of the stages of group development?
Tuckman's 4 stages are:
1) Forming: The group comes together and gets to initially know one another and form as a group.
2) Storming: A chaotic vying for leadership
3) Norming: Eventually agreement is reached on how the group will operate.
4) Performing: The group becomes effective.
added later: 5) Adjourning
How is a support group different than a therapy group?
A support group isn't led necessarily by a counselor. It is an organized network of people with something in common who give and receive help, advice, friendship and emotional support. A therapy group is a form of psychotherapy where there are multiple patients led by 1 or more therapists.
How would the counselor's behavior be different in facilitating an experiential group as compared to an educational group?
An ed. gropu has a prescribed course for lessons and process as a goal an experiential group, while centered perhaps on a topic, such as grief, does not have an objective or lesson, but is solely process orientated.
What does an interpersonal group focus on?
inter-relationship and communication btw. group members.
Here and now experiencing of all members.
On going process among them in the development of their mutual relationships.
What does an intrapersonal group focus on?
focuses more on the needs and concerns of individual members and engages the group on interactions that focus on those needs as well.
Group characteristics that promote success are ...
level of trust among members
freedom to experiment
commitment to change
Yalom's curative factors of groups (1995)
Didactic in terms of group process is defined as _____
A didactic group consists of reading assignments, lectures, and group discussions.
Experiential in terms of group process is ...
Experiential is related to personal experience and an individual's reality within the group process.
A process group is ...
one that has a trained counselor or facilitator who can lead the group in accomplishing personal growth
A content group is ...
Psychoeducational driven.
A content group is driven by content material - didactic in nature.
Yalom's curative factors of groups are ...
11 Curative Factors:
1. Instillation of Hope
2. Universality
3. Imparting of Information
4. Altruism (unselfish giving)
5. Corrective recapitulation of the primary family group
6. Development of socializing techniques
7. Imitative behavior
8. Interpersonal learning
9. Group cohesiveness
10. Catharsis
11. Existential Factors
Negative group forces are ...

Positive group forces are ...
Negative group forces are ones that limit behaviors and produce anxiety, whereas positive group forces encourage behaviors that manage anxiety.
An open group is ...

A closed group is ...
Open group allows for new members to enroll throughout the running time of the group, closed does not
A structured group is ...

An unstructured group is ...
Structured groups feature a sequence of lessons or activities whereas unstructured groups have no agenda, lessons, or activities planned - unstructured groups tend to be open.
What type of leadership style would be appropriate with elementary students? Adolescent students?
A blend of styles would be most appropriate ...
The styles are:
1. laissez faire: leader is more of a member
2. authoritarian: expert leader promotes his/her own agenda (teacher role)
3. democratic: the leader collaborates w/ members
4. interactive: experiential learning
What is the primary role of a school counselor?
To design and implement a comprehensive program of services with specific goals and objectives that complement the broader mission of the entire school.
What teaching style or learning activity is most effective for helping students understand and appreciate differences. Why?
An experiential (interactive) style tends to be an effective approach - although others are also effective.
What are some key messages a counselor should communicate about personal safety? About interpersonal relationships?
Personal Boundaries
Internet Safety
Personal Rights/Safety

????? (Guessed on this one ...)
What are the 4 forces of human behaviors regarding counseling?
What are the 3 domains in Multicultural counseling competencies?
1. Counselor awareness of own assumptions, values, and biases.
2. Understanding the worldview of the culturally different client.
3. Developing appropriate intervention strategies and techniques.
There are "10 Diversity dimensions" (According to Praxis ;)) ... Name them
1. Race
2. Ethnicity
3. Culture
4. Language
5. Gender
6. Age
7. Sexual Orientation
8. Religion
9. Giftedness
10. Disabilities
Racial identity is defined as ...
Racial identity can be defined as a process or series of stages through which a person passes as the person's attitudes toward his/her own racial/ethnic group are shaped
Gender stereotyping in education involves ...

Gender stereotyping in career development involves ...
Gender stereotyping in education involves helping students explore where they have developed their ideas of what it means to be a boy or girl. Then discussing what those ideas mean and the impact they have on us and the community. In Career Development - how have these ideas shaped our reality? How has reality shaped our ideas?
Racism is defined as ....

Oppression is defined as ...
Racism: the inherent belief in the superiority of one race over all others & thereby the right to dominance.
Oppression: an unjust & systemic excessive exercise of power against an unidentified group of people, such as disable people where laws, attitudes towards & treatment (including portrayal) of this group all reinforce this discriminatory situation.
Ethnocentrism is defined as ...
the tendency of most people to use their own way of life as a standard for judging; now also indicates the belief, on the part of most individuals that their race, culture, society, etc. are superior to all others.
How can a counselor become more aware of his or her own values and biases?
personal growth work
personal counseling sessions
supervision & consultation
I.D.E.A stands for ...
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
What is the meaning of the term exceptionality, as used by educators?
The term refers to those who are gifted and have a disability or are gifted and have ADHD. Children with dual exceptionalities are difficult to identify b/c their strengths from their giftedness hide their weaknesses from their disability.
What are the mandatory elements of an IEP?
What is the typical role of a counselor in creating the IEP and implementing it for a student with disabilities?
being present in the IEP meeting
working with team regarding accommodations
being present in CARE team/SST meetings
communication w/ student and parent if necessary
What does the term "least restrictive environment" mean?
requires schools to educate students with disabilities with the regular ed. population to the maximum extent possible and appropriate for students with disabilities.
What are 4 scales of measurement in appraisal?
Validity is defined as ...
the extent to which the measurement instrument or test accurately measures what it is supposed to measure
What are the types of validity?
Content Validity is ..
The degree to which an achievement test is content contains a representative and appropriate sample of the subject matter (content) contained in the instructional objective whose attainment the test is intended to measure.
Criterion (predictive) Validity is ...
The degree to which the score on a test predicts the individuals score on a test or performance in some other area. (i.e. if correlated, a test of scholastic achievement can be used to predict job success)
Concurrent Validity is ...
The comparison of two measures done at the same time - the degree to which two tests are in agreement
Discriminant Validity is ...
A type of validity that is determined by hypothesizing and examining differential relations between a test and measures of similar or different constructs. It is the opposite of convergent validity. Evidence that a measure of a construct is indeed measuring that construct.
A reliability co-efficient is defined as ...
An index of the consistency of measurement often based on the correlation between scores obtained on the initial test and a retest or between scores on two similar forms of the same test.
Name three types of reliability co-efficients.
1. Internal Consistency
2. Split=Half reliability
3. Test-retest reliability
What is Internal Consistency?
An estimation based on the correlation among the variables comprising the set.
What is Split-Half Reliability?
An estimation based on the correlation of two equivalent forms of the scale.
What is test-retest reliability?
An estimation based on the correlation between two or more administrations of the same item, scale, or instrument for different times, locales, or populations, when the administrations do not differ on other relevant variables.
Statistics & Testing
- Sampling theory is ...
Random sampling of a population that we'd like to study. If population is large, researchers often turn to sampling. Considerations include:
- is sample representative?
- what % of error is acceptable?
Statistics Testing
- Testing norms ...
Norm referenced tests compare a person's score against the scores of a group of people who have already taken the same exam, called the "norming group"
Statistics & Testing
- Central tendency is ...
Central tendency is a measure of the point about which a group of values are clustered.
What are three measures of central tendency?
Mean, median and mode.
Define mode.
the single class/value that occurs most frequently in a series of numbers
Define median.
the measure in central tendency that occupies the middle position in a rank order of values. Generally has the same # of items above it as below it.
Define mean.
the average value in a data set it is determined by adding all the values & dividing the sum by the # of values in the set.
Statistic & Testing
- Variability is defined as ...
the dispersion, spread, or scatter of scores or values in a distribution, usually about the mean
Define variance
a measure o the spread of the values in a distribution. The larger the variance, the larger the distance of the individual cases from the group mean.
Define deviation
the difference between an observed value and the expected value of a variable or function
Statistics & Testing
- Standard error of measurement is ...
the estimate of the 'error' associated with the test-takers obtained score when compared to their hypothetical 'true' scores.
Statistics & Testing
- Correlation coefficients mean ...
a numerical value that identifies the strength of relationship between variables
Z Scores are ...
the # of standard deviations above or below the mean
T scores are ...
a test score converted to an equivalent standard score in a normal distribution with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10
test scores converted to an equivalent standard score in a normal distribution with values 1, 2, 3, ...9 a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 1, 96.
% ranks
the % of people in the norming sample who had scores less than or equal to the students score
How are standard scores expressed?
They are expressed in units of standard deviations from the mean set at 0.
What is the meaning of a negative correlation coefficient?
A statistic that gives a measure of how closely two variables are related. A statistical measure of the extent to which variations in one variable are related to variation in another. Negative correlation means that the two values vary in opposite directions. So, as parameter x increases, parameter y decreases.
- What are some of the types of tests that are used in counseling?
Ability & aptitude
Career & interest
- Objective
- Projective
Attitudes & beliefs
Psychological constructs: self-esteem, locus of control, intro-version/extroversion, interpersonal style, personality types
- Diagnostic
There are 6 types of appraisals. Name them.
-Rating scales.
-Behavioral observations.
-Formal published inventories.
-Test batteries.
What is the difference between a structured and an unstructured interview?
a structured interview has specific questions and an agenda - can be an intake interview; whereas an unstructured interview doesn't
What is a Likert response scale?
A psychometric response scale often used in questionnaires - is the most widely used scale in survey research. A 5 pt. item.
What are behavioral anchors?
Behavioral anchors are descriptions of the past.

What is a sociogram and when would you use one?
A graphic representation of social links a person has. It can be drawn on the basis of many different criteria: social relations, channels of influence, lines of communication etc. Another definition: It represents the patterns of relationships between individuals in a group, usually expressed in terms of which persons they prefer to associate with.
What are some cultural issues in assessment?
1. Representativeness on norm groups in terms of gender and culture.
2. Culture biases in language use
3. English as a second language
4. Gender bias
What effects do testing conditions have on students taking assessments?
Students can be impacts both positively and negatively by the testing environment.
1. temperature in the room
2. arrangement
3. mood of the facilitator
4. mode of the test - computer/pen-paper
Discuss the importance & key aspects of sharing and interpreting test results w/:
individual response
What are some examples of appropriate methods of sharing standardized test results with groups of parents?
(my answer) You can explain how to read results and what they mean & DON'T mean. Important to key in to parents who are overstressing students. Take opportunity to talk with parents about ways they can help their kiddos. Sleep, eat well prior to the test, low stress etc.
What are some cautions to observe when interpreting the results of a career, attitude, or personality test taken by a student who is a recent immigrant to the United States?
tests are not normed for all cultures - and if they are normed for that culture caution should be taken in interpretation since the norm might be done with a an assimilated group rather than a newly immigrated group
Name some of the types of transitions that students face.
Home to school.
School to school.
- across grade levels
- across districts or school bldgs.
School to work.
Referral from 1 specialist to another.
Seeking placement in a different system.
Returning to school from residential treatment or other external program.
Name some transitional activities possible ...
1. articulation agreements w/ other schools
2. orientation programs across grade and bldg. levels
3. buddy systems for new students
4. placement activities for incoming students
5. teaching students job-seeking skills
What are some effective strategies for home-to-school transitions of very young children?
visual aids
social stories
schedules in the classrooms
What are some effective strategies for grade-level transitions?
Visiting the classroom
What are some effective strategies for school-to-work transitions?
community building activities
training opportunities
a vocational trainer
voc-ed @ high school level
career guidance for all hs students
working w/ businesses in community to develop partnerships
What does the consulting role involve?
The counselor helping others:
-those from the community

* Can be formal or informal
*Occasional or extended over time.
What are some consulting activities & skills?
-Helping staff understand student behaviors
-Generating alternative solutions
-Supporting staff efforts
-Making recommendations for change
What is the role of the school counselor when a teacher discloses her or his own personal struggles and asks for help?
Listen attentively and be present, however, direct them if the situation warrants to an outside counselor/LPC since a dual relationship would develop. There is a difference btw. a colleague "venting" a little and needed counseling.
How would a school counselor best respond to a teacher concerned about bullying by some students in the classroom?
Ask for specifics -
- names
- who/what/when/where/how
- call in "victim"
- go from there & assess
Who are some individuals that counselors consult with as far as families of students?
-Custodial parents
-Noncustodial parents
-Extended family members
-Legal guardians
What are some consulting activities with parents and families of students?
-Helping parents understand their children's behaviors and their families as interpersonal systems
-Helping parents who are concerned about their children and their experience in thei school
-Using family counseling skills with students in their family contexts
-Teaching parenting skills
-Managing boundaries & confidentiality
-Helping parents make decisions & options
How an the counselor intervene with parents who discipline of their children is ineffective?
(My answer) This is a tricky ledge - negotiate carefully based on your judgment of parents' ability to accept information. You can offer more information on what might be effective working with a kiddo ... particularly if it is working at a school. Remember that some parents are doing all that they know / the best they can. Be careful not to exercise judgment.
What can a school counselor offer to families experiencing the death of a family member?
Hook them up with resources.
Let staff know if necessary that the kiddo will need extra time/support.
Provide if appropriate/ask - information on grief &/or grieving.
Resource materials & books
Information on support groups.
Name some community organizations and agencies that school counselors consult with.
legal business
mental health civic
medical industrial
What are the ethical and legal guidelines regarding the release of counseling information to external 3rd parties.
You can do it if you have a signed release from parent or legal guardian.
What are some consulting activities that a counselor might use with activities and organizations?
Helping agencies understand students & the school system.
Helping agencies develop services to benefit students.
Helping agencies interface with schools.
Collaborating with agencies to share information in ways that benefits students.
What are some ways to help an outside agency understand the school system's approach to referral of students?
Provide literature that explains it.
Explain it.
Allow them to sit in on SST, START team, IEP, 504 meetings
How should the the school counselor respond to requests from outside agencies to visit the school to work with students?
Ask what they need from you to be successful. If they need referrals of students be sure not to duplicate efforts.
Identify students in need (get permission slips and records releases as applicable).
Network and be involved in the community.
Don't waste their time or yours!
Who is the architect, builder and primary provider of the counseling and guidance program at school?
the school counselor
Management and organization of counseling and guidance programs.
A comprehensive guidance program is more than a collection of services. It is...
... an organized systemic program that serves multiple populations:
What are the basic elements of comprehensive guidance programs?
1. Guidance curriculum
2. Individual planning
3. Responsive services
4. System support
Guidance curriculum consists of two parts, these are -
-Large group guidance in classrooms.

-Small group activities
Individual planning consists of three parts. These include:
1. Individual appraisal
2. Individual advisement
3. Placement
Responsive services, as a part of a comprehensive guidance program, include the following:
-Counseling with individuals
-Counseling in small groups
-Counseling with parents and families
-Referrals to others resources
-Crisis counseling
-Consulting with teachers, parents, administrators, and community agencies
System support, as part of a comprehensive guidance program, includes:
1. Coordinating data collection and sharing
2. Community and advisory boards
3. Researching and evaluating services
4. Program management and administration
What are the major components of a comprehensive counseling and guidance program?
1. Guidance Curriculum
2. Individual Planning
3. Responsive Services
4. System Suppport
What types of student development are the focus of a comprehensive guidance program?
Academic Development
Career Development
Personal/Social Development
When is referral the most appropriate school counselor response to a student's needs?
The counselor cannot meet the student's need b/c of:
-student's issue is beyond the scope of school counseling setting
-counselor bias
The development of a comprehensive guidance plan has the following stages:
1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Implementing
4. Evaluating
Conducting needs assessments through surveys, interviews, observations, and analysis of existing data is part of the _____phase.
Planning Phase
Developing a comprehensive guidance curriculum with explicit student competencies and outcomes.
Developing preventive and responsive services.

These are part of the _____ phase in the development of a comprehensive guidance program.
Organizing Phase
In the Implementing Phase of developing of a comprehensive guidance program you ...
1. coordinate counseling services and activities with academic and other school programs.
2. advertise the availability and scope of counseling services to students, staff, parents, and agencies.
3. scheduling counselor time and tasks
4. establishing record keeping and information systems
Evaluating consists of ...
1. Coordinating, designing, analyzing and interpreting program development plans.
2. Conducting program evaluation on an ongoing and systemic basis
- student outcome studies
- satisfaction surveys
- counselor self-assessment
- performance evaluation of counselor
- repeated needs assessments
What are the primary components of the National Standards for School Counseling programs?
According to the National Standards school counselors must function in a variety of roles to support the academic, career and social/personal development of students.
School counselors are expected to do:
individual counseling
group counseling
school wide guidance activities
case management
program evaluation
How do the roles of elementary middle, and secondary school counselors differ?
Elementary: very different, more opportunity to focus on the self - function in transistion ot community - role is more on ind/group and psycho-ed.

High school - scheduling, more focused on career and transition to work
What are some of the materials that a counselor is responsible for getting out to students and families?
-career resource materials
-self-help information
-community resource information
-computer based interactive guidance systems
-world wide web resources
Where would you look to find appropriate current information for students about careers? Jobs? Family Issues?
Professional journals/magazines
How would you help middle school students to process information they have received about human sexuality?
Open door policy
Frank & honest
If you have concerns - come & see me
Those students who I know might have issues I'd check in with
What are the steps in ethical decision making process?
1.What are the consequences of your decision?
2.How can the option be implemented?
3.Decide which option is the most ethical.
4.Consider your options.
5.Think through the ethical dilemma and identify all components as objectively as possible.
What are the rights of parents to information about their children's counseling?
They are legally the "client" you can ask them to respect the counseling safe space - if necessary you can provide them with a vague summary outline of what was discussed.
What is required for confidential information about a student's counseling to be released to 3rd parties?
A signed release
Which school staff, including counselors are required to report child abuse and neglect?
How does the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) affect the role and activities of the professional school counselor?
school counselors are involved in IEP meetings, identifying students struggling academically who may fall under IDEA ... participate in START meetings, SST meetings and deal with parent concerns
What is the effect of the Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA) on the work of the school counselor.
FERPA protects the privacy of a students records. It means that parents many request to see students educational records. The impact on the school counselor tends to be an ethical one when non-custodial parents express an interest in the records. Also the counselor should be savvy about what is put in the permanent record.
How long should a counselor keep records of counseling with students?
There are 3 classes of data. Records of counseling falls under "class C" data - this type of data should be removed or destroyed as soon as usefulness has expired - maximum of 5 years is standard.
What are some activities designed to enhance the professional school counselor's own professional development?
-Attending professional workshops & seminars
-completing advanced graduate studies for credit
-keeping current in professional lit
-membership & participation in state, regional, and national associations
What are self-care activities & resources to maintain balance, personal centeredness, & well-being to avoid burn out.
1. Balancing work activities
2. Balancing work w. personal lifestyle needs
3. Maintaining cognitive, emotional, and physical health
4. Developing & maintaining healthy professional relationships, networking, and mentoring.
What factors contribute to counselor burnout?
-high level of stress
-role ambiguity
-individual factors
- over-identification w/ clients
- therapeutic locus of control
Why do professional licenses & certifications require professional development activities?
So that counselors continue to stay current in their field, stay connected with their peers, and continue to ruminate on their craft.