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71 Cards in this Set

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Paleolithic Peoples
(Early Stone Age Peoples) Peoples from the Paleolithic era. Used most primitive of tools; hunters and gatherers; joined bands or tribes that moved around
Neolithic Peoples
(Late Stone Age Peoples) Peoples from the Neolithic era. Use of primitive tools; Practiced agriculture, hunting, gathering, fishing and domestication of animals. Part of chiefdoms and tribes.
Mayan
Mesoamerican Civilization thriving during the Classic Period (250-900AD). Noted for fully developed written language, art, architecture and math. Decline upon arrival of Spanish Conquistadors.
Aztec
Certain ethnic groups of central Mexico during the late Post-Classic Period. Dominated large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14, 15 and 16th centuries. Tenochtitlan famous city and center of growth for Aztec empire at the time.
Inca
Incan Empire became largest empire in Pre-Columbian America. Began as a tribe in the Cuzco area and controlled much of the land in the Andes.
Pueblo
Apartment-like structures made from stone, adobe mud, and other local material inhabited by communities of Native Americans.
Crusades
1095-1291AD Holy Wars between the Christians/Holy Roman Empire and Muslims.
Middle Ages
(Medieval) A period in European history that lasted from the 5th to the 15th century and included but not limited to the Crusades, Renaissance, and Hundred Years War. This period followed the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476AD) A period of Christendom.
Renaissance
"Rebirth" - A cultural movement that spanned from the 14th to 17th century beginning in Florence, Italy. Learning styles based on/reverted back to classical influences; Educational reform; Artistic developments (Leonardi Di Vinci; Michaelanglo)
Islam
Religion articulated by the Quran. Muslim people practice Islam which is based on one God, Allah and the teachings of Muhammad; 5 Pillars of Islam- religious practices (creed, prayer, fasting, charity and pilgrimage to Mecca).
Vasco De Gamma
Portuguese Explorer who sailed the route from Europe to India passing the southern tip of Africa in 1497. Opened direct sea route to Asia!
Ferdinand and Isabella
King and Queen of Spain (The Catholic King and Queen). Married to unite Spain. Authorized expedition of Christopher Columbus. *Children: Catherine of Aragon
Christopher Columbus
"Founded" the Americas. (Bahamas) Opened up awareness of American continents to the Europeans. Resulted in the Age of Discovery. From Genoa, Italy; Authorized by Spain to go on expeditions. 1492 voyage prompted western imperialism and economic competition between nations.
John Cabot
First man to claim lands in the New World for the English. All other claims were by the Spanish since Columbus' first voyage. Authorized by King Henry VIII. Sailed from Newfoundland and New England down to Delaware Bay.
Jacques Cartier
1534AD
Claimed Canada for France.
Sir Francis Drake
1579AD
Englishman to explore the Pacific Coast of San Francisco Bay and claim it for England.
wood
Dřevo
Mercantilism
Economic idea based on the theory that gold is wealth. A mother country attempted to control trade with colonies so that it achieved greater wealth than the colonies(ie: England/American colonies).
Boston
Capital and largest city in Massachusetts. Puritans founded the city in 1630. Became major shipping port and manufacturing site beginning in colonial America. Americas first PUBLIC SCHOOL and Harvard was founded in 1636 in Boston.
"Power of the Purse"
The legislative body chosen/representing the people of the colony has control of the governments budget (ie: Budget and taxation)
Peter Zenger
1735AD
German-American journalist/publisher for the New York Weekly Journal a.k.a. The Weekly Gazette charged of seditious libel (attempting to undermine or overthrow a government). Resulted in First Amendment, Freedom of Press.
Ye Olde Deluder Satan Act
1642AD
Requiring each town provide schooling for its youth (Massachusetts). The legislative body of this colony passed this act.
Proclamation Line
1763AD
The proclamation created a boundary line between the British colonies on the Atlantic coast and American Indian lands (called the Indian Reserve) west of the Appalachian Mountains. Outlawed private purchase of Native American land.
Purpose was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.
Sugar Act
1733-1764AD
Also known as the American Revenue Act or the American Duties Act and the earlier Molasses Act. A revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on sugar or molasses (used to make rum). Used to raise money for British in paying off debts and remain wealthier than colonies.
Currency Act
Several acts of the Parliament of Great Britain that regulated paper money issued to the colonies. 1731 and 1764 The acts sought to protect British merchants and creditors from being paid in depreciated colonial currency (inflated paper printed money). Could only use for public debts but not private ones.
Nonimportation Agreements
Colonists agreement to not use certain goods imported from England
Quartering Act
Were used by the British forces in the American colonies to ensure that British soldiers had adequate housing and provisions. Great Britain would house its soldiers in American barracks and public houses, as by the Mutiny Act of 1765. Colonial authorities were required to pay the cost of housing and feeding these troops. it seemed to violate the Bill of Rights 1689.
Stamp Act
1765AD
Required that every paper document carry a stamp on it.
Sons of Liberty
Secret organization or political group originating in the Northern colonies of America. The group was designed to incite change in the British government's treatment of the Colonies in the years following the end of the French and Indian War.
Declaratory Act
Claimed Parliament has the authority to pass laws for the colonies "in all cases whatever". This was done in spite of effect of the stamp act and colonists reactions.
Townsend Acts
1767AD
External taxes placed on the colonies such as import duties on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. Charles Townsend denied the argument that Parliament could impose internal taxes on the colonies so offered external taxes to be placed on the colonies.
East India Company
Was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies. British efforts to save the company from Bankruptcy in 1773 prompted the Boston Tea Party.
Coercive or Intolerable Acts
A series of five laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774. Four of the acts were issued in direct response to the Boston Tea Party. The Boston Port Act, The Massachusetts Government Act, The Administration of Justice Act, The Quebec Act , The Quartering Act.
Continental Congress
A convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution. The Congress met from 1774 to 1789.
First Cont. Cong. wanted to make amends with Britain. Convened in response to Intolerable Acts.
Second Cont. Cong. movement towards ideas of independence. Second Continental Congress:
Olive Branch Petition
Declaration of the Causes...
Declaration of Independence
Articles of Confederation
Olive Branch Petition
An attempt to avoid a full-blown war with Great Britain the document outlined that the colonies did not want independence but that they merely wanted to negotiate trade and tax regulations with Great Britain. Suggested the King draw up a final plan or agreement to settle trade disputes. Suggested that either the colonists be given free trade and taxes equal to those levied on the people in Great Britain, or no taxes and strict trade regulations.. The petition affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated the king to prevent further conflict. The petition was rejected, and in August 1775 the colonies were formally declared in rebellion.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
Were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies.
Battle of Bunker Hill
1775AD
Mostly on and around Breed's Hill, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War. British victory though they suffered so many causalities and injury (more than that of the colonials)
Battle of Saratoga
1777AD
Saratoga, NY where Washington and his continental army defeated General Burgoyne was a turning point in the war. French signed Treaty of Alliance in light of America's Independence and joined war following year.
Battle of Yorktown
General Lord Cornwallis surrenders to Washington's forces (French, General Lafayettes men in south and continental army) at Yorktown, VA on October 19, 1781 bringing the war to an end. Some attacks there led by Alexander Hamilton.
George Washington
Led America's Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and later became the first President of the United States, from 1789 to 1797. Gained command experience during the French and Indian War (1754–1763).
Lord Cornwallis
In the United States and United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence. His 1781 surrender to a combined American-French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America.
General Lafayette
Lafayette was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde Nationale during the French Revolution. In the American Revolution, Lafayette served in the Continental Army under George Washington and blocked Cornwallis' troops at Yorktown.
Founding Fathers
the political leaders who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 or otherwise took part in the American Revolution in winning American independence from Great Britain, or who participated in framing and adopting the United States Constitution in 1787-1788. Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.
Daniel Shays
An American soldier, revolutionary, and farmer famous for leading an armed uprising in Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. Seeking debt relief through the issuance of paper currency and lower taxes, they attempted to prevent the courts from seizing property from indebted farmers.
Alexander Hamilton
Was the first United States Secretary of the Treasury, a Founding Father, and wrote most of the Federalist Papers, a primary source for Constitutional interpretation. Hamilton was the primary author of many of the policies supported by the Federalist Party.
Northwest Ordinance
Was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States. the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes. It established the precedent by which the United States would expand westward across North America by the admission of new states, rather than by the expansion of existing states.
Critical Period
Coined by John Quincy Adams, refers to the 1780’s, a time right after the American Revolution where the future of the newly formed nation was in the balance. The newly independent former colonies were beset with a wide array of foreign and domestic problems.
Judiciary Act of 1789
The First United States Congress established the U.S. federal judiciary. The Act set the number of Supreme Court justices at six: one Chief Justice and five Associate Justices.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. They were introduced by James Madison to the First United States Congress in 1789 as a series of articles, and came into effect on December 15, 1791, when they had been ratified by three-fourths of the States.
1. Freedom of...
2. Right to bear arms
3. Quartering troops
4. Search and Seizure; Warrants
5. Rights of accused (plead fifth)
6. Protection for accused in trial (speedy trial; attorney appointed)
7. Suits at common law
8. Punishment-not excessive or unnecessary
9. Certain rights not be construed
10. Powers reserved to states or people
Hamilton vs. Jefferson
Loose and strict construction of the Constitution
Each had beliefs about how government should be interpreted.
Hamilton-Strong Central government to take care of the people and responsibilities
Loose construction of the Constitution (Implied powers)
Jefferson-Less control from government and strict understanding of the Constitution
Twelfth Amendment
Provides the procedure by which the President and Vice President are elected. Proposed by congress and ratified in 1804.
Aaron Burr
Served as the third Vice President of the United States (1801–1805) under President Thomas Jefferson, and was the first Vice President to never serve as President. A formative member of the Democratic-Republican Party with a political base in New York.
British Parliament
Governing body of the UK of Scotland and of Ireland. Bicameral System containing the House of Lords and House of Commons. The Queen is the third part of the Legislature. 650 members of parliament. House of Lords (738) are elected by the sovereign with help of Prime Min. and House of commons is elected by public.
Federalist Papers
Series of 85 Articles advocating (interpreting) the US Constitution. Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay. Motivated people to ratify the Constitution.
Karl Marx
Critiqued German Philosophers. Had ideas about social change and of capitalist economy. Argued the Material world was real (rather than think in idealist terms). Conceived that the modern working class is most progressive force for revolution.
Progressivism
Middle class and reformist in nature, it arose as a response to the vast changes brought by modernization, such as the growth of large corporations and railroads, and fears of corruption in American politics.
Explicit Cost
A direct payment made to others in the course of running a business, such as wage, rent and materials
The Great Awakening
Religious revitalization that took place in the Atlantic region of the world. Specifically, this affected American colonies from the 1730s-1740s. Focused people who were already church-goers to be more passionate and personal in their faith. Emotional preachers with almost theatrical sermons.
Articles of the Confederation
The "first" constitution. The articles outlined particular responsibilities and duties of the Congress. The articles were an explanation of how the national government would operate. The documents were ratified in 1781.
Federalist
Strong centralized government. For the constitution. (Northerners with more money from trade AND agriculture)
Anti-federalist
Weaker centralized government-strong state governments. Against the constitution. (Southerners who owned or worked farms)
Jacksonian Democracy
Political policy that recognized the power of the executive branch, broaden public's involvement in government, and favored geographical expansion. Jacksonians opposed government granted monopolies to banks. Laissez-faire economy.
Oligarchy
A government ruled by a few.
Glorious Revolution
A controversy that led to a power struggle between parliament and the king.
Impressionists
Abandoned the studio where artists traditionally worked and went out into the countryside to paint nature directly.
19th Amendment
Woman's right to vote. prohibits each state and the federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920.
Monroe Doctrine
Prohibits European nations from colonizing any lands in the Western Hemisphere.
War Powers Act
To ensure the President would consult congress before committing troops to extended conflicts.
Warren Court
Supreme Court of the United States between 1953 and 1969, when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice. Did not increase state authority over federal authority.
The Connecticut Compromise
A document that suggested the legislative branch have a House of Reps. and a Senate
Social Insurance Programs
Programs that provide insurance against such social problems as old age, illness, and unemployment