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88 Cards in this Set

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Define pragmatics
using language as a social tool in an organized, goal directed, controlled way
what influece preschooler's pragmatics
communication dyad, partner, topic, and temperament
what is included under pragmatics
linguistic functions, registers, paralinguistic codes, discourse feature
name paralinguistic code examples
rate, eye contact, prosody
what are registers?
how we alter speech depending on situation
percent 2 yr old and 4-5 yr old respond to
75 percent and 90 percent
Every utterance is a __ who termed this? what are conditions?
act, John Austin 1955, Felicity conditions
name 3 felicity conditions
persons and circumstances must be appropriate; act exectured completely and correctly by all participants, participants have appropriate intentions (cir/per; correct; intent)
who developed Austin's work? what did he claim?
John Searle; every utterance speech act w/ 3 seperate acts
Whate are three parts of Speech act?
locutionary, illocutionary, perlocutionary
define locutionary acts.
uttering a sentence
perlocutionary acts
effect on the listener
illocutionary acts
the intentions of the speaker
2 types of speech acts?
direct; indirect
indirect acts not explained through
syntax, one must examine context
what is implicature
implied meaning; literal/ non literal speech acts
What are Grice's conversational maxims (rules)?
quality, quantity, relevance, manner
6 functions of language
instrumental-achieve objects/ action, regulatory- control others, interactional, personal- express personal state, heuristic, imaginative
6 pragmatic functions
labeling, descriptions, informative, affirmation/ negation, repetiion and revision, requesting (yes, its a white cat. with blue. will you spot it?)
3 parts of turn taking
introduction, maintenance/ shifts, closure
how 1, 2-3, 4 year old handle conversations
1- initiate w/ glance, gesture, voclztn. has one to two turn maintenance; 2- limited maintenance; 4 better aware of listeners needs; more socially cognizant
what is presupposition?
process of assuming which information a listener possesses/ needs
what do kids who are more conversationally aware do?
use more affective utterances (feeling, atitudes, states), articles, pronounds, demonst., preps, might use deixis terms
what are deixis terms?
deixis= process of using ones perspective as a reference; this, that, here, there
Dore's 8 Primitive Speech Acts
labeling, repeating, answering, requesting, calling, protesting, greeting, practicing
labelling
while attending to action or event; not to adult; "ball" as he touches it
repeating
repeat what hears adult say; doesn't wait for response
answering
responds to question of adult
requesting
word/ utterance w/ gesture (usually) signalling demand; addresses adults, waits for response
calling
MAMA!
greeting
of person/ object upon appearance
practicing
use word/ prosodic pattern w/o object/ event; not to adult, doesn't expect response
Halliday's Four Early Pragmatic Functions
instrumental (personal needs), regulatory, interactional, personal- express child's own needs/ feelings; all interpreted by caregiver
langauge variation compares what?
SAME LANGUAGE- regional, social, stylistic variations; (groups of speakers/ same speaker in different situations)
What does it mean to achieve linguistic competence?
language user knows phonetic, semantic, grammatical rules of language; also adjust language according to situation
4 types of variations
language, dialects, registers, styles
each language shares
linguistic universals
dialect?
systemic variation of group
register?
speech adaptation meeting social / comm. demands of situation; (we master several)
styles?
unique to personality/ intelligence; idiolect
what is an anaphoric reference? used when?
referral to what came before; learning pronouns
what is ellipsis?
speaker omits redundant info; assumes its known
by age 4 children can?
use various roles in play; use motherese to address young children
what do young kids usually use to initiate/ maintain convos?
2- nonverbal; questions and contingent queries (request for clarification)
4 types of language acquistion theories (one has 2 sub)?
behavioral, psycholinguistic (syntactic/ nativist, semantic/ cognitive), socialinguistic, emergentism
Who championed behavioral approaches?
BF Skinner, Osgood, Mower
characteristics of behavioral approaches?
language through environment; long words- imitation and chaining (builds), shaping (modified; successive approximations- association word+referrent), observable/ measurable, operant/ classical conditioning (reinforcement/ punishment); performance, function, empiricist (testable); syntax grammar- frame/ slot strategy
pros of behavioral approaches?
influence later sociolinguistic theories, good for language intervention, stress importance of environment
Behavioral approaches cons?
most grammar errors ignored, few responses are reinforced; only imitate new words/ limited structures; after 2, kids rarely imitaton, not all language is modeled; minimized cognitive processes of comprehension
Psycholinguistic- Syntax? (Nativist)
Plato and Noam Chomsky; language innate; stresses language form and underlying rules; Focus on LINGUISTIC PROCESSING; linguistisc universals prove biological basis of language; emphasize language form and underlying rules
what is an anaphoric reference? used when?
referral to what came before; learning pronouns
what is ellipsis?
speaker omits redundant info; assumes its known
by age 4 children can?
use various roles in play; use motherese to address young children
what do young kids usually use to initiate/ maintain convos?
2- nonverbal; questions and contingent queries (request for clarification)
4 types of language acquistion theories (one has 2 sub)?
behavioral, psycholinguistic (syntactic/ nativist, semantic/ cognitive), socialinguistic, emergentism
Who championed behavioral approaches?
BF Skinner, Osgood, Mower
characteristics of behavioral approaches?
learn through chaining (builds), shaping (modified), observable/ measurable, operant/ classical conditioning; performance, function, empiricist (testable)
pros of behavioral approaches?
influence later sociolinguistic theories, good for language intervention, stress importance of environment
Behavioral approaches cons?
little evidence for imitation/ reinforcement; after 2, kids rarely imitaton, not all language is modeled; minimized cognitive processes
Psycholinguistic- Syntax?
Noam Chomsky; underlying mental processing of phrase structure and transformational fules; linguistic universals (say languages only dif. on surface); nativists- biological basis for language; emphasize syntactic structure
3 ideas under Psycholinguistic Syntax?
TGG, Government Binding Theory as a LAD (Language Acquistion Device- brain area must be activated by environment)
Psycholinguistic Syntax weaknesses?
no proof w/ brain area, doesn't explain differences or single word stage (based on adult models); neglects phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics at the cost of syntax; ignores environment; structure alone can't explain- nonsense
Psycholinguistic Semantic model
Bloom, Brown, Slobin, Schlesinger; case grammar emphasize semantics, challenging Chomsky's syntax); semantic and cognitive model, word order/ morphological markers; bootstrapping
what is meant by case grammar
semantic function for noun phrase marked by word order/ morphological markers
Limitations of psycholinguistic semantic model
focuses on congintion, doesn't explain how cognitive thought process becomes language; adult perspective
3 people sociolinguistic theory? focus? expalin language with what 2 things?
Dore, Austin, Searle; focus pragmatics, Speech Act Theory, caregiver- vital role, joint reference; speech act theory and zone of proximal develpmt ((actual development/ potential))
Limitations sociolinguist theory
doesn't say "how" child associates symbol and referrent; doesn't explain how form of language acquired
emergentism?
brain org. explains nature; learned quickly, easily; impossible to learn language w/o prior knowledge; linguistic universals seeks to explain mind
explain the cognitive problem solving aspects of emergentism
language- results from neural interaction patterns; cognitive processes manipulate symbols (come from- brain parts, exposure to language, task during use of language)
9 types of nonverbal behavior
organismics, costuming, occulesics, proxemics, chronemic, haptics, objectics, kinesics, vocalics
organismics, costuming, occulesics
organismics- view based on superficial (height), costuming- makeup/ clothes; occulesics- eye-contact, eye movements, dilation
haptics, objectics, kinesics
touch, objects, body movement
proxemics, chronemic, vocalic
personal space, transfer of info through time, vocal quality (inflection, stress, rate)
standardized assement by aware of
taboo topics, what to call kids, how they learn, what they enjoy, how comm. usually works, how kid was raised, nonverbal rules, cultural values, rituals, punishment/ reward
alternative to standardized assessment
spontaneous language sample- fewer presuppositional constraints, permits code switching, parents can corroborate
when comparing w/ manual?
are using same age, sex, race? same characteristics? limitations on manual? verified? same purpose? culturally biased/ outdated language? multiple languages? reading level of child? affect sensory motor problem inflicted children?
2 basic categories of behavioral theoritical approaches?
empiricists- behaviorist, nurture, learned; nativists- linguistics, nature, innate
Two levels of linguistic processing
phase structure- rules controlling basic relationships all sentences (N/V structure); transformational rules- rules governing changing structure by language
how do nativists beleive children learn language?
by hypotheses. have finite set of rules and experiment until understand syntax
psycholinguist syntactic bootstrapping
children use knowledge of syntatic categories to make interences bout new words
linguistic theories contribution
open door for cross-cultural language studies; diff. view, identify linguistic universals
psycholinguistic semantic details? what first? weakenned what? rooted in what?
meaning preceds form, rules rooted in cognitive development and not LAD, weakened innateness; (Pinker); use knowledge of word meanings to understand syntactic categories
limitations of psycholinguistic semantic theories
why some never get language? cross over at 3 when language affects thought? doesn't explain HOW/ WHY cognitive processes become linguistically coded.
sociolinguist theory (comp. model, intentionality, usage based) explan research/ studies?
purpose- establish joint reference; research "motherese", joint attention; neglected children's language inferior
Pros of sociolinguistic theories.
added to behavioral theories (reinforcemnt), importance of environment (input, modeling, feedback), child active (unlike behaviorist who sees child as passive)
more on emergentism. borrows from ? 3 sub models?
behavioral/ nativists (mostly) assumptions; connectionism, parallel distributed processing, neural networds
emergentism- limits of biological factors _?
allow for discovering grammar
limitations of emergentism
hard to understand; gaps in how our brains process language