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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Communication --

Must Have :
No real definition

theorists belive that communication is amix of smbols (things that represent something ) adn human action (agree this is only for humans!)
Theory -
Explanation of how why etc.

general assumption about ppl
with theorries you can predict
action / human behavior

but not theory is 100% correct.
symbols -
these represent something.
need sybols 4 effective communication
communication theoriests disagree over
broadness of the communication def.

debate of intrapersonal comm.
role of intent
idea of judgement
(3 types)
epistemology - study of knowledge
study of knowledge
study of being

def. of SOMETHING!
value theories
vbalue of worth
value of morality
views of the world ==
can be similar but no 2 are exactly alike

different views are born pc of peoples lives adn experiecnes
Kenneth Burke -
theorist - terministic screens -- looked at words ppl used. to reflect society
Burke's Definition of Man

5 parts

Semel Is Gonna Stop Rena
Man is...
1. a symbol user, creater, misuser
power to give things meaning nad do it wrongly

2. inventor of teh negative
mathematically negative and also impose negative ideas to create bad and good.

3. goaded by spirit of heirarchy
natural drive to have symbols and organize them. we can create relationships bw things

4. separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making. we can create things beyond outr naturally surviving. we go to extremes

5. rotten with perfection - we try to hard to make everyhting beyond perfect!
trained in capacity
we limit our own function from educational training.

ie cell telephone adress book. we are so dumb now!
scientific perspective
removed subjectitivity - there is evidense or proof
humaistic perspective
values subjectivity more objective - different ppl have their own ideas!
social science perspective
mix of humanisticand scientific -- science with creativity -
semionic tradition
tradition of signs - stimulous of something other then itself

ie gray clouds signify rain
simple meaning
experience - ways we have experiences or the wya we know the world.

ie - a shoe can be a shoe -- but can also experience it was a hammer, and to kill bugs -
cybernetic tradition
systems regulation and control driven by system theory -
system theory
interdependance and interconnectedness who is better hten sum of its parts!
sociopsychiological tradition
tradition of individual-- in social setting as a social being
critical tradition -
power and oppression
looks at power struggles ie marx and eceonomy

looks at creating change
rhetorical tradtion
tradition of pursuasion and style - pursude all PR fundraising
the 6 tradition

the phenomenological tradition
cybernetic tradition
sociopsycological tradition
sociocultural tradition
critical tradition
rhetorical tradition
1 - traits
individuals unioque charactoristics that effect behavior

1. conversation narcism - (prince farquad) self absorbed in conversation talk about themselves
2 - argumentative - jerry springer
controversial ingo to have your own agenda!
3 - social nad communication anxiety
ie bashful of 7 dwarfs
nervous 2 communicatite
fear of talking toppl therefore socail avoidance.
4 - trait factor models -
smilies -- 5 factor model - 5 different personalities

5. biology - individuals are differnet bc of biolo. genetica differences
2 - attribution Theory
how we explain behavior of others. how different ppl think to handle a situation

do in a number of ways -
1. situational effects - caused by environemtn
2- perosnal - influecne persoally -
3 - ability - being able to do something
4- effort to do something
5 dsire to do something
6 - sentiment feeling liek doing something.
7- belonging going along with somthing.
8- obligation feeling like you ought to do something
permission - not allowed to do something.

fundamental attricution error - we only care about ourselbes not other .. make exvcuses for ourselbes
Social Judgement Theory
how we make judgement on what we har and how we predict how we will judge a message

attitude acceptance - statement of agreement
attitude of rejection -- dont care
attitude of noncommitment - noncommital

ego involvment -- how muc hyou actually care
Elaboration liklihood
try to predict who or when you will or will not be pursuaded by messages - calculates the different ways to eval. messages

- critical - very importiant --- motivated by involvemnt, impoertance of arguemnt nad personal disposition to htink critically. thinks a lot baout the issue!
- peripheral - lack of critical thinking - doesnt really effect you very much.
Information Intergration
theory about the way we accumulate and organize ingo about ppl , objectsm situations nadideas.

valence - weather info supports or rejects your ideas.
weight - function on credibility

expected value theory - 2 kinds of belifs - belief in a thing and about a thing.
cognitive dissonance -
we have 4 cognitive facilities

together these form harmony ...

dissonance push to change behaviors.. 5 situations
1. decision making - change attitudes to decrease stress
2. forced to comply - reward punish forces you to change behav.
3. initioation - more differences initiate hte more ytou want to complete action.
4. social support. shopping. ask a friend 4 help
5. effort. put effort into somehting.. ull want to do it.
symbolic interaction -
we create meaning through our actions!
social construction of Self -
its empowering -- the creation of self. our own interpretation of an object we cna change function of an object
identity -
is socailly constucted bc of who we are and bc of other ppl. symbolic interaction of self creates who we are thru out actions.
social construction of emotion
these emotioal ties are created by us bc we cant have emotion witout lang. but can be misunderstood.
Suzanne Langer -
philospohy in a new key - spread out what should be in communicatoini .. ie dance, art, theater, quilting. all messages thru this!
direct corrolation - gray clouds and rain
symbol -
idea but no direct connection

gray clouds as a metaphor transfer ideas to other things.
symbols meaning :
denotative meaing
more objective def that ppl agree upon -- dictionary def.
connotative definition
more subjective meaning can be personally or socially subjective

socialyl constructed iddeas ..
presentational symbolism
get whole form at once. feel the materical.

very visual.. makeup clothing, food ads.

ie painting,
central route - symbols you use in lang. needs to be correctly ordered in a logical order

.advertisments that are importiant ie cars, drugs, services..
susan langers def. of time
time doesnt exsist. its only the constructs of time that give it its meaning.
Burkes theory of identification
identify yourself thru relation to other ppl.
mental identification
connect so that you can discuss. very idealistic identity. ie study groups
connectio thru materials ie red sox hat.
formal identification
cenrtain things weknow in their ability to meet form.

ie formal meeting shake hands in america.

how we appeal to ppl. ie sex and the city. watch the show where you can can identify wit hcaharacters.
coming together to create a new relationship with value and worth.
ideaof movemtn thru
gestures - interpretations to say a lot. can change meaning.
idea of emblem
direct translation ie wave = bye
thumb hitchihike

tonnction 2 action.
help hilight what we are talking about.
weighing options. show gesture
increase - raise hand
indicators/affect display
geestures that indicate feeling.
ie big gestures = passion
hairtwirl = nerves
proxemics -
use of space and how it effects our messages .
ie interpersonal space - boy and girls
feminine style
pursuasion theory . mode of message construction

- connect ideas when teching
deductive reasoning -- general to speciifc inductive look at especific instuenace.
5 charactoristics of Feminine Style
- experienced based judgements - decisions made based on own experience
- focus on connection and inclusivity - include more ppl in speech.
- empowerment other.. bc grewout of oppressed ppl.
- holistic approach to decision making. blend feelings and reasoning 4 decisions benefit the whole.
- focus on issues that are ignored oe fem issues like childcare and others of oppressed ppl.
compliance gaining
trying to get ppl to do what you want them to do. or stop what you dont want them todo.

use exchange theory approach.
compliance is an exchange for something else supplied by the comliance seeker.

very power oriented.
inquiry - systematic study of expericnes that leads to understanding, knowledge, and theory.

1- ask questions.
2- observations.
3- constuct answers.
3 basic models of inquiry
1- scientific, - objectivity
2- humanistic - emotional
3- social scientific. - both
expectancy value theory
attitude change can occur from 3 sources

2 kinds of beliefs -
1. belief in a thing
2. belief about a thing

attitudes towards an object equals the sum of each belief about that object times its evaluation
attitudes are a function of a complex combination of beliefs and evaluations.

attitude change-
info alters hte believablility and weight of a particular belief
info can change the valence of a belief
info cna be added that changes and adds new beliefs.
theory of reasoned action
behavior results in part from intentions adn a complex outcome of attitudes
you behave a certain way bc of preexsisting attitudes and beliefs.
symbolic convergence theory
fantasy theme analysis -
this theory imagines that individuals images of theory are guided by stories reflecting how things are believed to be. these stories are created thru symbolic interaction adn then passed on.
Speech Act Theory
understand how ppl accomplish things iwht their words.

it is importiant to know what what the speaker intends to do by uttering a proposition.
nonverbal signs
nonverbal codes are clusters of bahaviors that are used to convey meaning.

these are gradations and consist of body expression and vocal intonation.

these are in:
idea of emblem
proxemics - use of space.
phenomenological tradition
concentrates on the conscious experiences of hte person. this idea says that ppl activly interpret their experices and come to understand hte wrold by which personal expericne with it.

direct expericnes in how ppl view the world.

3 principles
1. knowledge is conscious.
2. meaning of athing consists of hte potencial of that thing in ones life.
3. lang is the vehicle of meaning.
information processing
explain how you think, organize and store info and how congition helps shape your behavior.

these theories -
attribution thory
social judgement theory
elaboration likelihood theory
strategy choice theories
look at how communicators select from among various message stretedis to accomlish a goal.

theories -
1. strategy choice models
2. constructivism - recognises that constructs have social origins and are learned though interaction with other ppl.
3. politeness strategies - we design messages that protect face and cheieve otehr goals as well. - face threaening acts come along we must use this to handle bad situations.
message design model theories
message design model concentrates on how communicators actually constuct messages to meet their goals.

planning theory - process in which ppl plan their communication behavior.
semantic meaning theory- deals with the ways in which meaing are learned andhow they relate to thnking and begavior.
message planning theory
plannign our messages is very critical. must study goal behavior. the more you know .. the mostcomplex the plan will be.