Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/27

Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
MBO
management by objectives

process that matches a RACE or ROPE PR model

1. define problem (situation analysis)
2. state objectives (strategy)
3. create campaign or program that meets/surpasses objectives (implementation)
4. evaluate and provide feedback (assessment)
ROI
return on investment

an outcome variable that equates profit from investment
RACE
research
action
communication
evaluation
ROPE
research
objectives
programming
evaluation
goals
a general outcome expected when a campaign or program is completed; long term and gives direction
objectives
very specific and is based on projected and actual program outputs

specifically how to attain a goal and solve a problem

Cause and effect related
3 kinds of objectives
informational (what the target audience should know)
motivational (audience's attitude)
behavioral (outcome)
characteristics of a "good" objective
1. written with output, outtake, and outcome in mind
2. usually start with "to"
3. must include a measurable outcome (quantifiable)
4. in a campaign, start with informational, then motivational, then behavioral
4 levels of measurement
nominal
ordinal
interval
ratio
advantages and disadvantages of nominal
- classifcation of measured characteristic or attribute
- numbers assigned to categories
- mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive

disadvantages: only qualitative; can't do advanced statistics or arithmatic operations

advantages: can show frequences and percentages
ordinal
- numbers used to rank categories
- description of order

disadvantage: unable to measure degree of difference between categories
interval
assumes distances between observations are equal along the continuum

disadvantage: no absolute zero so you can't do ratios
ratio
adds requirement of absolute zero point to continuum

can convert ratio to all other measurement levels
categorical data
puts observations into classes

nominal and ordinal measurements

advantages: simple to make
disadvantage: difficult to interpret
continuous data
assumes the distance between classes is equal and observation occurs on a continuum

interval and ratio

advantages: easy to explain; can reduce down to other measurement levels; offers more info
disadvantage: difficult to make
validity
Whether a measure is actually measuring what you defined it to measure
four types of validy
face
content
construct
criterion-related
face validity
occurs when you operationally define the measurement as measuring what you say it measures

based on your credibility
content validity
occurs when you ask experts to review your measure

based on authority and credibility of you and your judges
construct validity
obtained through an analysis of how the measure is actually used; statistical testing
criterion-related validity
established when your measure is shown to be related to other established measures or if it successfully predicts behavior; pretesting your measure against known measures to see if it can predict
reliability
the extent to which a series of measures yields results that are consistent and stable
measurement scales
- a composite measure of a concept
- for complex concepts that cannot be measured with a single item

likert
semantic differential
likert scale
how strongly they agree or disagree with a series of statements

- can calculate a summated/average score

(strongly disagree - strongly agree)
semantial differential scale
5, 7, or 9-point items bounded at each end by one of two bipolar ADJECTIVES

- can calculate a summated/average score
7 steps in research process
1. define research goal/objective
2. determine research design
3. determine data collection method
4. select sample
5. design data collection forms
6. collect data
7. analyze data reports
3 stages in measurement process
1. identify and define the concept
- conceptual definition (dictionary)
- operational definition (measurement)
2. determine how to measure an observable event
- level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio)
- scales (likert or semantic differential)
3. evaluate and revise
- reliability
- validity