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30 Cards in this Set

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Cellular location and end products (per glucose) for:
Glycolysis
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
Kreb cycle
Electron Transport
Fermentation
Glycolysis: cytoplasm, end products = 2ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate

Pyruvate dehydrogenase: mito matrix, end products = 2NADH, 2 acetyl-CoA, 2 CO2

Kreb cycle: mito matrix, end products = 6NADH, 2 GTP, 2 FADH2, 4 CO2

Electron transport: inner mito membrane, end product = proton gradient

Fermentation: cytoplasm, end products = 2 ATP, 2 lactic acid (muscle) or 2 ethanol (yeast)
Three major types of macromolecules, their monomers and their funtions
Carbohydrates: monosaccharide unit; energy

Protein: amino acid; channels, pores, hormones, enzymes, etc

Nucleic acids: nucleotides, DNA (genetic info), RNA (protein synthesis)
RNA
single stranded, bases A,G,C,U; sugar ribose.
mRNA = translated to make protein.
rRNA = needed to make a functional ribosome
tRNA = carries an amino acid to a growing protein
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes = no nucleus or organelles; 3 different DNA polymerases and i RNA polymerase; mRNA is polycistronic; single circular chromosome; no mRNA processing

Eukaryotes - nucleus and other organelles; 1 DNA polymerase and 3 different RNA polymerases; mRNA is monocistronic; several linear chromosomes; mRNA must be processed before translation.
3 life cycles of a virus
lytic, lysogenic, productive
3 shapes of bacteria
round - coccus
rod shaped - bacillus
sprial - spirochete
rough ER
smooth ER
centrosome
peroxisome
holds ribosomes that are synthesizing secreted or membrane proteins, protein modification

lipid metabolism

mitotic spindle formation

eliminates free radicals
Depolarize
Hyperpolarize
Repolarize
depolarize = move away from rest potential in positive direction
Hyperpolarize = move away from rest in negative direction
Repolarize = return to rest

Voltage-gated Na+ channels depolarize

voltage-gated K+ channels hyperpolarize/repolarize
adrenal medulla's effect on sympathetic effects
adrenal medulla produces epinephrine which can bind to NE receptors prolongs/increases sympathetic effects
5 classes of sensory receptors
mechanoreceptors - shape changes, hearing receptors, touch receptors

thermoreceptors - temperature, hot/cold receptors

pain receptors = pain, all over body

chemoreceptors = chemicals, smell, taste, CO2 receptors

Photoreceptors = light, rods/cones
Endocrine vs. exocrine
endocrine = secrete hormones directly into blood

exocrine = secrete various products through ducts onto body surface or cavity
peptide hormone vs. steroid hormone
peptide hormone = amino-acid based, bind to extracellular receptors, fast acting; adrenaline, insulin, thyroid hormone

steroid hormone = cholesterol based, bind to intracellular receptors. slow acting; estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, cortisol
anterior gland vs. posterior gland
anterior pituitary gland = gland tissue (adenohypophysis)

posterior pituitary gland = nervous tissue (neurohypophysis)
growth hormone
anterior pituitary, exercise/other hormones, targets all cells, growth/cell turnover
prolactin
anterior pituitary, nursing, targets mammary glands, breask milk production
TSH
anterior pituitary, low thyroid hormone, targets thyroid, increase thyroid hormone
ACTH
anterior pituitary, low corticosteroids, targets adrenal cortex, release of corticosteroids
FSH
anterior pituitary, low sex steroids, target ovaries/testes, egg/sperm maturation
LH
anterior pituitary, low sex steroids, targets ovaries/testes, ovulation/progesterone/testosterone release
oxytocin
posterior pituitary, nursing/labor, targets reproductive smooth muscle, labor/milk ejection
ADH
posterior pituitary, high blood osmolarity, targets kidney tubules, retain water
thyroid hormone
thyroid gland, low metabolism, targets all cells, high metabolism
aldosterone
from adrenal cortex, low blood pressure, targets kidney tubules, high Na+ retention
Cortisol
from adrenal cortex, stress, targets liver, high blood flucose
estrogen
from developing follicle, FSH, targets uterus and othe rbody cells, high lining and female sex characteristics
Progesterone
from corpus luteum, LH, targets uterus, maintains lining
testosterone
from Sertoli cells (testes), FSH, targets sperm/other body cells, sperm production and male sex charasteristics
Insulin
from pancreas, high blood flucose, targets all cells, reduce blood glucose
Glucagon
from pancreas, low blood glucose, targets liver, high blood glucose
layers of the alimentary canal from the lumen outward
mucosa, submucosa, circular muscularis, longitudinal muscularis, serosa