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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Behavioral Genomics is the study of...

Specifically the effect of _______ and _______ to influence behavior

Examines the complex matter of how our GENES function together with each other and the ENVIRONMENT to influence behavior
Angeleman Syndrome

-caused by a deformation of..
-prooves that...
A set of symptoms including: excessive happiness, excitability, friendliness, hypermotor activity, short attention, retardation

caused by deformation in chromosome 15.

prooves that alterations in a gene (even prenataly) can affect an individual's personality.
According to the chapter what significant part of personality is exclusive to genetics?
what are the four aspects of temperament?
Activity: overall energy level

Emotionality: arousability (calm vs. fussy)

Sociability: reaction with others.

Impulsivity/Agression: cold or friendly.
Eysenck's model of Nervous system temperament

-what biological link does eysnick's theory propose?
Suggests that introverts avoid arousal because of a large amount of internal nervous arousal. Meanwhile, extroverts seek arousal for lack of mental arousability.

Links the introversion-extroversion dimension to the underlying nervous system
What are the two difficulties with Eysnick's theory?
-difficult to define and measure nervous system “arousal”

-Human body tries to maintain equilibrium so responses are not consistent
what two sources of evidence supoprt eysnick's claim?
-Skin conductance studies find that introverts are slower to habituate to sensory stimuli

-Extroverts generally show less EEG arousal than introverts
What are the two important systems in Gray's personality theory? Where are they located?

BIS- Behavioral inhbition system is in the left prefrontal cortex

BAS- Behavioral Activation system is in the right prefrontal cortex.
What happens with an overactive BIS system? BAS?
Overactive BIS: prone to anxiety

Overactive BAS: increase risky behavior (thrill-seekers)
What systems seem to play a role in the BIS vs BAS? In which way does each regulate behavior?
BIS- Serotonin. behavior is regulated AGAINST UNDESIRED states.

BAS- Dopamine. behavior is regulated TOWARD DESIRED states.
Zuckerman's thrill seeking and addictions model. What system may be disabled?
Those high on "sensation seeking" have a low level of internal arousal, so they are drawn to novel and exciting experiences.

These individuals may have defects in their dopaminergic systems.
Twin studies: what do they tell us?
Comparing identical twins
to fraternal twins makes
it possible to detect GENETIC INFLUENCES on personality.
Why would we study adopted children and both sets of their parents?
These studies seek to determine the effects of the environment. In their homes they are "raised" by their adoptive environment and "raised" by their biologic parents.
What influences personality?
Personality is influenced by biology, socialization, and environment.
An intriguing way that biology can affect personality is by affecting the environments in which we find ourselves. Biology may lead some of us in search of a happy lifestyle and others of us to health-threatening lifestyles.
How could other people influence our personality?
Physical characteristics influence the way others treat us and thereby mold our views of the world—our.

ex: pretty individuals rated as nicer, more successful, paid more....
What role does attachment play in personality?
A person's attachment is said to be biologically determined. The attachment style a person develops in childhood may influence their future relationships with others.
How is altruism defended by an evolutionary standpoint?
It may seem that altruism hinders the individual by strengthening competition. Researchers believe that it enhances their survival by helping others similar to themselves in the gene pool.
What is the cinderella effect?
Refers to evidence suggesting that parents give preference to biological children over step-children

f.e: Stepchildren much more likely to be abused (physically, verbally, sexually, emotionally)
Social Darwinism:
darwin argued that individuals, cultures, and societies take part in a natural survival of the fittest competition
Eugenics is a social theory advocating the improvement of human hereditary traits through various forms of intervention