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41 Cards in this Set

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Psychoanalytic approach emphasized the....

How was neurotic behavior interpreted...
unconscious

as goal oriented behavior not meaningless or random.
Freud’s theory is grounded in
psychological determinism
Topographical Model of the Mind: The mind is divided into these three levels of functioning:
Concious
Pre-conscious
Unconcious
The unconscious is...

-methods to bring out the unconscious.
The portion of the mind of which a person is not aware.

-hypnosis
-dream analysis
-free association
All of our mental activities, the combination of our conscious and unconscious.
psyche
Our psyche's were divided into three classes which Freud labled...
Id
Ego
Superego
ID

-contents (drives)
-principle of operation
primitive drives and emotions

Pleasure principle
Ego

-contents (drives)
-principle of operation
Balances the id and the superego.

Reality principle
Superego

-contents (drives)
-principle of operation
internalizes social norms

morality principle
ID

- developed when
- closely tied to what functions
- entirely from what portion of the mind?
At birth (inherited, instinctinve)

biological functions (eat, drink, sex)

unconsious
Reality principle asserts that the true purpose of life is...

Unmet needs result in...
immediate satisfaction

"aversive tension"
EGO

-develops...
- why is it called the "decision-maker"
- operates at what level of the mind?
out of the id

balances the needs of the id in socially acceptible ways.

all levels mostly conscious and preconscious.
Reality principle

-the focus of the reality principle is to...
satisfy the id in the most socially acceptible way.
Superego

-develops...
- oversees..
- operates at what levels...
in childhood (4-5 y.o)

the ego and makes sure it acts MORALLY

All levels of consciousness.
KEY POINT in Freud's theory
Key point: Balance is an important feature of Freud’s perspective
What are the psychosexual stages in order.
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
Freud believed that the development of the mind occured by the libido shifting...
The gradual development of the mind as the libido is redirected to different parts of the body
Psychosexual stages:

-children pass through...
- ________ is formed at each stage
-unresolved conflicts cause...
each of the steps (unless they get stuck in one)

A critical element to personality is determined at each stage.

conflicts cause a fixation in that stage.
Oral stage

Theme
Conflict
Consequence
Infants are driven to satisfy their biological drives of hunger and thirst.

End of breast feeding

Oral fixation- nervous, chew on everything, preoccupation with food.
Anal stage

Theme
Conflict
Consequence
child relieves himself by removing bodily wastes

toilet training

anal-expulsiveness or anal-retentiveness
Phallic stage

Theme
Conflict
Consequence
Children gain pleasure through the genitals

Oedipus and Electra complexes

Overt sexual behavior, alignment with same-sex parent.
Girls and the phallic stage.
Girls not afraid enough of castration (no penis) so they identify less with MOMS and develop less ego-strength and therefore are more comonly fixated at this stage (inflated or repressed sexuality)
Latency Stage

Theme
Conflict
Consequence
psychosexual energy is channeled into academic and social pursuits

NONE
NONE
Genital stage

Theme
Conflict
Consequence
satisfaction from mature relationships

the genitals not the awareness but the function of the genitals
What does a healthy individual LOOK LIKE?
These are individuals who made it through the stages with no major fixations and enough energy.

"Healthy development is the ability to love and work in a healthy way."
pushing threatening thoughts/ideas into the unconscious
Repression
Repression is considered _________ defense mechanism.

What is so important about repression?
Repression is the most basic defense mechanism.

Repression must occur before other mechanisms can be used.
objectionable thoughts are repressed and their opposites expressed
reaction formation
refusing to acknowledge anxiety- provoking stimuli despite abundant evidence for its reality
Denial
attributing anxiety provoking impulses or thoughts to others
projection
shifting of one’s unconscious aggression or fears to a safer target (hydraulic model)
Displacement
dangerous urges are transformed into positive, socially meaningful motivations
Sublimation
protects the individual by returning to an earlier, “safer” time of life
Regression
creating logical and socially acceptable explanations for behaviors which were driven by unconscious impulses
Rationalization
disturbing thought is not denied consciousness, but related negative emotions are repressed
intellectualization

terminally ill family members learn all about the disease to detach emotionally.
internalization of the values and mannerisms of a feared person thereby reducing him or her as a threat
identification with the agressor

Very common in hostage situations
Manifestations of repressed thoughts in the course of everyday living
Parapraxes or Freuidian slips (rememeber everything happens for a reason)
why did Freud believe parapraxes happen?
To reveal unconscious motives.
Freud believed that gender differnces were _______ in nature.

He believed women were inferior because...

What did Freud believe at least partially contributed to women's inferiority?
Biological

Penis envy was not as severe as castration anxiety and thus women developed weaker super-ego's.

societal oppression.
Dream analysis

-Freud analyzed dreams because he thought dreams were...
Products of the psyche and therefore hints of the unconscious.
According to Freud dreams were made of two components. What were they? and what is the difference?
Manifest content: the content of a dream that a person remembers

Latent content: the underlying hidden meaning of a dream