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22 Cards in this Set

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What is an objective measurement? give an example.
measurement is not dependent on a judgment by the individual making the assessment.

ex: physiological measure, test score, "finding an embedded figure in a complex drawing ?????"
What is an subjective measurement? give an example.
measurement that relies on interpretation.

Drawings, Analysis of dreams, analysis of thoughts, hypnosis
what are the strengths and weaknesses of subjective measures?
Strength:
-complex phenomena may be examined and VALUABLE INSIGHT MAY BE GATHERED.

Weakness:
-different observers may make different judgments
What is reliability? What word is synonmous?
Reliability refers the consistency of scores on a measure.

Precision/Constancy
What is validity? what is its synonym?
The degree to which a test measures what it says it measures

Accuracy
What are the three dimensions from which to measure reliability?

-what methods do we use to test for each.
internal consistancy Alternate forms
-split halvs
-Chronbach's alpha

Rater reliability
-use several raters and compare or average.

Test consistancy (Test-test reliability)
relationship between reliability and validity
Validity of a measure is limited by its’ reliability; that is to say, an unreliable measure cannot be valid.
what are the three sources of bias?
Response sets
Ethnic Bias
Gender Bias
What is response set bias?

- what are the two most common?
A bias in responding that is unrelated to the characteristic being measured

-yea-sayers
-social desirability
Ethnic bias

-defenition
Many tests fail to take into account the relevant culture or subculture of the person being tested
Gender bias
Gender socialization and Gender inequalities:

Certain characteristics are "acceptable" for men and some for women... deviations may be a source of bias.
Self report tests/inventories

-Advantages
MOST COMMON TYPE OF MEASURE!!

-short/fast
-inexpensive
-objective
What are some of the most commonly used inventory scales?
MMPI
CPI
HPI
16PF
Projective tasks
Technique that attempts to study personality through the use of a relatively unstructured stimulus or task
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Projective tests?
-Individual is able to “project” unconscious motives and concerns

-Interpretation is subjective
What are common projective tests?
Rorchack Inkblot test
TAT- Cards and tell story
"Draw a person"
Ratings by others
ussually includes an inventory to be filled out by

-a family member
-spouse
-children
-co-worker
-teacher
-therapist
behavioral observation
litterally recording behaviors and counting their occurence. May also include experience sampling (beepers)
Interviews

-what are the three classes?
Structured-follows a set plan or set of questions

Unstructured- informal discussion with no guidelines

Semistuctured- some combination of the two. maybe start as one and end with another.
Expressive behavior
The assessment of non-verbal cues such as speech rate, gestures, posture, and gaze.
Why must we be extra cautious about using the EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR method?
Because it is HEAVILY influenced by CULTURE!
What is important to remember about any test?
it contains some level of error!