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34 Cards in this Set

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LIPOLYSIS:
Fats:
• Synthesis in cytoplasm
• Breakdown in mitochondria
Fatty Acid =>AcetylCoA + PropionylCoA
Activator: Glucagon
Inhibitor: MalonylCoA
enzyme is CAT 1
Citrate Shuttle
FA transport out of the mitochondria
Carnitine Shuttle
FA transport into the mitochondria
Citrate Shuttle:
• Feeds Acetyl CoA into fatty acid synthesis
• Citrate moves out to the cytoplasm via the citrate shuttle
Carnitine Shuttle: what is it used for, commited step, deficiency
Used for long chain fatty acids
Phosphorilation is the committed step
• Carnitine Deficiency: low energy state, fat build up in the cytoplasm
βeta-Oxidation:
The process where fatty acids are broken down to form Acetyl-CoA as an entry into the Kreb cycle.
what happens when you loose fat? how many atp do you produce?
=> Oh HOT!"
1) Oxidation:7 NADH => 21ATP
2) Hydration
3) Oxidation: 7 FADH2=> 14 ATP
4) Thiolysis: 8 AcCoA => 96 ATP
cost how many atp to get back 131
Costs 15 ATP, get back 131 ATP
Ratio is about 9:1 what does this mean?
that is why there are 9 calorie per gram of fat
how can we store fat without gaining weight?
Fat repels water, thus able to store a lot of fat without excess water weight
Which layer of the abdomen has the worst wound healing?
Adipose because it is always repelling water and has least amount of blood supply
describe how ketones are made?
1) AcCoA + AcCoA⇨ AcetoAcetylCoA
2) AcetoAcetylCoA + AcCoA⇨ HMG-CoA
3) HMG-CoA ⇨AcCoA +AcetoAcetate
4) AcetoAcetate ⇨ Acetone
5) AcetoAcetate⇨beta-OH Butyrate
the rate limiting enzyme for ketogenesis
HMG-CoA synthase
what is measure on a dipstick for ketones
Acetone is the only one able to be measured on a dipstick
beta-OH Butyrate
• Uses NADH cofactor
• crosses BBB
• hydroxy group-is less polar than a ketone group
Glycogen: Glycogenolysis vs. Glycogenesis: why is the liver big?
1 gram of Glycogen carries 2-3 grams of water
how does glycogen maintain blood sugar levels?
Glycogen= branched glucose polymer, maintains blood glucose levels
•α1,4 glycosidic bonds
• α1,6 branches (every 10 residues)
lnsulin=>effects on glycogen
glycogen synthesis
epinephrine = >effects on glycogen
glycogen breakdown
G-6P=>Glycogen (enzyme)
Glycogen synthase
Glycogen =>Glucose (liver) or Lactate (muscle)
Glycogen phosphorylase
Von Gierke
G6Pase deficiency ''von Gierke's Guts enGorged"
Cori's
Debranching enzyme deficiency "Cori is a short name"
Short branches of glycogen
Anderson's
Branching enzyme deficiency "Anderson is a long branching name"
McArdel's disease
muscle phosphorylase deficiency, muscle cramps during excercise, rhabdomyolisis
"McArdels muscles got messed up"
pentose Phosphate Pathway:
Ribose-5P's job:
Nucleotide synthesis
NADPH's job
FA synthesis, RBC membrane repair, kill bacteria
PPP: G-6P⇨A⇨Ribose-5P + NADPH⇨B⇨F-6P + G-3P
A:G-6PD
B: transketolase
G-6PD: Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase: RLE, activator and inhibitor
• Rate limiting enzyme for Pentose Pathway
• Activator: Glucose-6P Phosphate
• Inhibitor: Ribose-5 phosphate
G-6PD Deficiency: NADPH levels, ethnicity, MCC of what crisis, Drugs that oxidize RBC's, Peripheral smear
• ⇩NADPH: hemolytic anemia, infection,
• More common in Mediteranians (protects them from-malaria),
• MCC of hemolytic crisis is 1. infection, 2. drugs,
• Drugs that oxidize RBC's: Sulfa drugs, Anti malarials, Metronidazole, INH,
• Peripheral smear: heinz bodies
NADPH: when is it used?
• Fatty acid Synthesis
• DNA synthesis
• RBC repair used by Glutathion
Sources of NADPH:
• 90% fom pentose phosphate Pathway
• 10% from OAA-converted to Pyruvate
Ribose-5 Phosphate: function and deficiency
nucleotide synthesis, Forms DNA for cellular division, Deficiency leads to poor wound healing