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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
which part of the nephron concentrates urine
medulla
goldblatt's kidney
flea-bitten kidney (blown capillaries)
uremia
azotemia + symptoms
azotemia
increase BUN/Cr
nephritic kidney disease
describe
what does this lead to?
increase size of fenestrations => vasculits
nephrotic kidney disease
describe
what does this lead to?
lost BM charge due to deposition on heparin sulfate => massive proteinuria and lipiduria
what is seen in RPGN (rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis)
crescents
post-strep GN
what is deposited? (3)
where is it deposited?
subepithelial, IgG/C3/C4
intestitial nephritis
urine eosinophils
lupus nephritis: location of deposit
subepithelial
MGN (membranoglomerulonephritis)
deposition
MPGN (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis)
apperance on biopsy
unique levels
tram-tracks (type II has low C3)
MCD (minimal change disease)
most common in what patients
electron microscope
complications
what is this due to?
kids, fused foot processes, no renal failure, loss of charge barrier
FSGS (focal segmental glomerulonephritis)
who is at most risk
AA, HIV patients
what are the vasculitis w/ low C3?
"PMS in Salt lake City"
post-strep GN
MPGN type II
Serum Sickness
Lupus
Cryoglobulinemia
most common cause of kidney stones?
dehydration
most common type of kidney stones?
calcium oxalate
kidney stone: coffin-lid
triple phosphate
kidney stone: rosette
uric acid
kidney stone: hexagonal crystals
cystine
what type of kidney stones have enveloped or dumbell shaped crystals
oxalate
what disease has aniridia?
wilm's tumor
what disease has iridiocyclitis?
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
phimosis
foreskin scarred at penis head (foreskin stuck smooshed up)
paraphimosis
foreskin scarred at penis base (retraction of foreskin) => strangulates penis
urge incontinence
describe
what is this due to?
urgency leads to complete voiding (detrusor spasticity => small bladder volume)
stress incontinence
what is this due to?
weak pelvic floor muscles (estrogen effect)
overflow incontinence
runs down leg but cannot complete emptying the bladder
what structures have one way valves?
urethra, ejaculatory duct
what structures have fake sphicters?
ureters, LES, Ileocecal valve
what has WBC cast?
nephritis
what has WBC casts only?
pyelonephritis
what has WBC casts only + eosinophils?
interstitial nephritis (allergies)
what has WBC casts + RBC cast?
glomerulonephritis
what has fat cast?
nephrotic syndrome
waxy cast
chronic renal failure
tubular casts
ATN
muddy brown casts
ATN
hyaline casts
normal sloughing
epithelial casts
normal sloughing
crescents
RPGN
how do you measure afferent renal function?
creatinine (or inulin)
how do you measure efferent renal function?
BUN/PAH
what is the function of afferent arteriole?
filter
what is the function of efferent arteriole?
secrete
how do you test for afferent arteriole function?
GFR
how do you test for efferent arteriole function?
RPF
pre-renal failure
low flow to kidney (BUN:Cr >20)
post-renal failure
obstruction (have not peed in last 4 days)
function of proximal tubule
reabsorb glucose, aa, salt, bicarb
function of thin ascending limb
reabsorbs water
function of thick ascending limb
make the concetration gradient by reabsorbing Na, K, Cl, Mg, Ca without water
function of early distal tuble
concentrate urine by reabsorbing NaCL (hypotonic)
function of late distal tubule
final concentration of urine by reabsorbing water, excretion of acid (isotonic)
function of macula densa
measures osmolarity
function of J-G apparatus
measures volume
fanconi's syndrome
old tetracycline use => urine phosphates, glucose, amino acids
bartter's syndrome
baby with defective triple transporter ( low Na, Cl, K, with normal BP)
psychogenic polydipsia
no concentrating ability => cerebral edema
hepatorenal syndrome
high urea from liver => increase glutaminase =>NH4+ =>GABA => kidney stops working
what is Type 1 RTA?
pH of urine
associated with what syndromes
distal renal tubular acidosis: H/K in CD is broken => high urine pH (UTI, stones, Li)
what is Type 2 RTA?
pH of urine
associated with what syndromes
proximal RTA: bad CA => lost all bicarb => low urine pH (multiple myeloma and vit D deficiency)
what is Type 3 RTA?
RTA I + RTA II => normal urine pH (5-6)
what is Type 4 RTA?
what levels are high
associated syndromes
Infarct J-G => no renin => no aldo => high K (DM, NSAIDs, ACE-I, Heparin)
central pontine myelinolysis
due to correcting Na faster than 0.5mEQ/hr