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59 Cards in this Set

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What is the main principle of sensory processing?
Converting forms of energy in the environment into activation of neurons using sensory receptor organs that filter and code the incoming information into a usable form.
What does "adequate stimulus" mean?
Adequate stimulus is the right KIND of stimulus - e.g. photons for retina, sound waves for cochlea.
What are the five types of sensory systems?
Mechanical
Photic
Thermal
Chemical
Electrical
What are some examples of mechanical sensory systems?
Touch, Hearing, Vestibular, Joint, Muscle
What is an example of photic sensory systems
seeing
What is an example of thermal sensory systems?
Cold
Warmth
What are some examples of chemical systems
Smell
Taste
CO2 concentration (breathing)
pH sensing
osmotic pressure
Vomeronasal (pheromones)
What species has an electrical sensing system?
Sharks
What are labeled lines?
Particular cells that are, at the outset, labeled for distinctive sensory experience.
What are the three stages of sensory processing?
1. Energy of the proper type ("adequate stimulus") impinges on receptor cells
2. Receptor transduces energy into a change in electrical potential in the cell membrane ("generator potentials") (example - pacinian corpuscle deformation physically opens Na gates)
3. Stimulus characteristics are encoded
What information is encoded in a stimulus?
1. Intensity (By rate of fire)
2. Source (by linked lines)
3. Location
a. location of receptor(somatosensory, vision)
b. intensity differences (audition, olfaction)
4. Identity (higher processing)
What are the two general types of receptors?
tonic
phasic
If we are initially aware of a continuing stimulus but then cease to continue the same level of awareness, what is that called?
Adaptation
How does adaptation happen?
Direct reduction of stimulus (tonic vs. phasic) and the brain modulation of pathways (attention)
Name all the levels at which sensory processing occurs.
receptors
spinal cord
brain stem
thalamus
midbrain
primary sensory cortex
secondary sensory cortex
Why are receptive fields useful?
It allows us to distinguish edges and discontinuities.
What is the typical receptor style of receptive field?
Center surround.
What types of receptor fields exist in the cortex?
center-surround
unimodal (one sense)
polymodal (integration of multiple senses)
What does the property of "plasticity" mean in reference to cortical fields?
Regions of the brain adapt. The loss of a hand does not mean the loss of the cortex used to process that information. The unused portion gets innervated by neighboring fields.
What cortical region is especially important in attention?
posterior parietal lobe (polymodal cells)
What part of the brain is associated with the motivational aspect of attention?
Posterior cingulate gyrus
What are the parts of the skin?
epidermis
dermis-contains most receptors subcutaneous tissue
Name the large touch/skin receptors
Pacinian corpuscles & Ruffini endings
Name the small touch/skin receptors
Meissner's corpuscle & Merkel's discs
Name the phasic touch/skin receptors
Pacinian corpuscles & Meissner's corpuscle
Name the tonic touch/skin receptors
Ruffini endings & Merkel's discs
Name the response type, size, and sensing function of Pacinian corpuscles
Phasic
Large
Vibration, deep pressure
Name the response type, size, and sensing function of Ruffini endings
Tonic
Large
Stretching
Name the response type, size, and sensing function of Meissner's corpuscle
Phasic
Small
Spatial discrimination
Name the response type, size, and sensing function of Merkel's discs
Tonic
Small
Touch
What are the four main types of receptor axon (mylanation?
A-alpha
A-beta
A-gamma
C
What are the receptor types, diameter, and conduction speed of A-alpha axons?
Muscle Spindle
13-20um
80-120 m/s
What are the receptor types, diameter, and conduction speed of A-beta axons?
Pacinian corpuscles,Ruffmi endings, Meissner's corpuscle,
Merkel's discs
6-12um
35-75 m/s
What are the receptor types, diameter, and conduction speed of A-gamma axons?
Free nerve endings (VRL1: pain, temp)
1-5um
5-30 m/s
What are the receptor types, diameter, and conduction speed of C axons?
Free nerve endings (VR1, CMR1: temp, itch, pain)
0.02-1.5um
0.5-2 m/s
How far do sensory axons travel in the dorsal column system?
All the way to the medulla.
Where do sensory axons "cross over"
Between the medulla and the thalamus.
What are the four dermatomes?
Cervical
Thorasic
Lumbar
Sacral
What is the location of the somatosensory cortex?
The area between the central sulcus and the postcentral sulcus.
Give examples of somatosensory cortex plasticity
The removal of the middle finger (D3) causes the expansion of the surrounding digits (D2&D4) into the D3 area.
The association of stimulating D2&D3 digits with food causes an expansion of those areas, encroaching on D1 & D4.
What is needed to be done to objects for them to be accurately represented in the brain?
Active manipulation
What are some behavioral responses to pain?
withdrawing
engaging in recuperative behaviors
social signaling
What are three typical pain aspects measured?
sensory-discriminative
motivational-affective
cognitive
When is pain usually triggered?
destruction or injury to tissue
How do nerves detect pain?
free nerve endings have receptors for chemicals or temperature changes
What chemicals have been peripherally associated with pain detection by free nerve endings?
Serotonin
K+
Prostaglandins
Leukotrienes
What are the four main types of pain receptors?
VR1 (vanilloid receptor 1)
VRL1 (vanilloid receptor-like 1)
CMR1 (cool menthol receptor 1)
Nociceptive
What does VR1 respond to and what nerve fibers does it use?
heat (capssaicin works too)
C fibers
What does VRL1 respond to and what nerve fibers does it use?
high-temp heat
A-gamma fibers
What does CMR1 respond to and what nerve fibers does it use?
cool temps
C fibers
What system transmits temp and pain signals?
Spinothalamic (anterolateral) pathway
What are the four stages of Spinothalamic processing?
a. Afferent fibers use glutamate as a neurotransmitter, with Substance P as a modulator.
b.Postsynaptic neurons in dorsal horn take up the Substance P and show plasticity of dendrites that eventually affects perception of pain
c.Pain information crosses over spinal cord at the entry point
d. Pain information integrated in cingulate cortex
What are seven ways to control pain?
a. Opiate drugs
b. Skin stimulation
c. Placebos
d. Acupuncture
e. Stress
f. Aspirin, acetaminophen, NSAIDS
g. Hypnosis
How do opiates control pain?
stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter sends signals that shut the "pain gate"
How does skin stimulation control pain?
affects "pain gate"
How does a placebo control pain?
most likely stimulates "natural" opioids
How does a accupuncture control pain?
most likely like opiates.
How do NSAIDS control pain?
block release of substances peripherally
How does hypnosis control pain?
cognitive/ motivational